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C]^e  l^afeUigt  ^onetg. 




ON    THE 












Miitl)   Notes   anti   an   SntroOuction, 




Published  by 


514  West  113th  Street 
New  York  25,  N.  Y. 

no.  41 








The  Rioht  Hon.  Sib  DAVID  DUNDAS,  F.R.G.S.,  Peesident. 

■  Vice-Presidents. 


MajobGen.  Sir  HENRY  C.  RAWLINSON,  K.C.B.,  Pbes.R.G.8.  j 

Rev.  GEORGE  P.  BADGER,  F.R.G.S. 

J.  BARROW,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.R.G.S. 

Reab-Admiral  C0LTJN80N,  C.B.,  F.R.G.S. 

General  C.  FOX,  F.R.G.S. 

W.  E.  FRERE,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S. 

Captain  J.  G.  GOODENOUGH,  R.N.,  F.R.G.S. 

CHARLES  GREY,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S. 



R.  H.  MAJOR,  Esq.,  F.S.A. ,  8ec.R.G.8. 

Sib  W.  STIRLING  MAXWELL,  Bart.,  F.R.G.S. 

Sib  CHARLES  NICHOLSON,  Bart.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.G.S. 

Vice-admiral  ERASMUS  OMMANNEY,  C.B.,  F.R.G.S. 

Captain  SHERARD  OSBORN,  R.N.,  C.B.,  F.R.G.S. 

The  Lord  STANLEY  of  Aldbrley. 

The  Hon.  FREDERICK  WALPOLE,  M.P.,  F.R.G.S. 

CLEMENTS  R.  MARKHAM,  C.B.,  F.S.A.,  Sec.R.G.S.,  Honorary  Secbetary. 





Intkoduction  -  -  -  '  -     xi 

Itinerary  of  Francisco  Pizarro,  in  the  Account  of 


1524.  Nov.  H.    Pizarro  first  sailed  from  Panama              -                 -  3 

Sufferings  at  Port  Famine       .                 _                 -  lb. 

Pizarro  at  Chuchama               -                 -                 -  i 

Almagro's  first  voyage              .                 .                 -  if,. 

Second  expedition  of  Pizarro  and  Almagro              -  5 
Pizarro  at  the  river  San  Juan.      Voyage  of  the 

Pilot  Ruiz         -                 -                 -                 -  0 

Pizarro  reaches  San  Mateo  and  Atacames                -  7 

Pizarro  and  his  companions  on  the  Isle  of  Gallo      -  8 

1526  -         -    Pizarro  reaches  the  coast  of  Peru             -                 -  9 

1527  -         -    Pizarro  goes  to  Spain               -                 -                 -  11 

1529.  July  2(3.    Capitulation  between  Pizarro  and  Queen  Juana     -  ib. 

1530.  Jan.      -    Pizarro  sails  from  Spain          -                 -                 -  12 

1531.  ,,        -    Pizarro  sails  from  Panama       _                 .                 .  {(>. 

The  expedition  reaches  the  Isle  of  Puna                   -  13 

Arrival  at  Tumbez  -                 -                 -                 -  16 

1532.  May  16.    Departure  from  Tumbez          -                 -                 -  19 

,,    18.    At  a  village  among  the  hills     -                 -                 -  20 

,,    24.    Encamp  at  Puechio,  on  the  river  Turicarami  (or 

Chira)                ....  H. 

,,     ,,      Sea  port  of  Payta  discovered   -                 -                 -  21 


1532.  May  24.    Cruelty  to  chiefs  of  Almotaxe  and  Lachira  -  22 

,,     .,      Founding  of  San  Miguel,  at  Tacgarara  -  -  23 

Sep.  24.    Departure  from  San  Miguel    -                 -  -  25 

,,    27.    In  the  valley  of  Piura              ...  ij. 

Oct.    7.    At  Pabor,  in  the  Piura  valley                  -  -  26 

,,     ,,      Expedition  of  Soto  to  Caxas  and  Huancabamba  -  ib. 

,,      8.    At  Zaran  in  the  Piura  valley  -                -  -  27 

,,    16.    Return  of  Soto.     Account  of  Caxas.      Embassy 

from  Atahuallpa                -                 -  -  ib. 

,,    17-19.  Crossing  the  desert  of  Sechura            -  -  31 

,,    20-24.  At  Copiz.     At  Motux  (Motupe)          -  -  ib. 

„    28.    Hernando  Pizarro  swims  across  river  at  Cinto  -  33 

Nov.  4,  5,  6.  Marching  across  coast  valleys            -  -  35 

,,    10.    Commence  the  ascent  of  the  Cordilleras  from  La 

Ramada             -                -                -  -  37 

,,    15.    Arrive  at  Cassamarca              -                -  -  44 

,,     ,,      Interview   of    H.    Pizarro    and    Soto    with    Ata- 
huallpa              -                -                -  -  48 

,,    16.    Seizure  and  imprisonment  of  Atahuallpa  -  65 

Arms  of  the  Ynca  army           -                -  -  60 

Palace  of  Atahuallpa  near  Cassamarca   -  -  61 

TheYncas                -                -                -  -  62 

Great  Ransom  offered  by  Atahuallpa      -  -  65 

The  Pachacamac  oracle            -                -  -  67 

1533.  Feb.     -    Arrival  of  Almagro                  -                -  -  69 

,,      5.    Three  Spaniards  sent  to  Cuzco                -  -  72 

Jan.    5.    Expedition  of  Hernando  Pizarro             -  -  71 

Itinerary  of  Hernando  Pizarro,  in  the  Report  of 


1533.  Jan.    5.    Left  Cassamarca.     Dined  at  Ychoca       -  -  74 

6.  Huancasanga            -                 -  -  -  75 

7.  Guamachuco             .                _  _  _  ib 

8.  Tambo      -                -                -  -  -  76 
9-13.  Andamarca           -                 -  -  -  ib. 

14.    Totopamba                -                 -  -  -  ib. 



.  li). 

Coron<j:o  - 







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Marcara    - 







1 1 




.    1. 

H  uara 











■.  3. 



























■^  1 




Departed  from  Xanxa 

1 1 


Tambo      - 






Huanuco  (Giiaiieso) 


.    1. 





1 1 






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Return  to  Caf  saiiiarea 








































1533.  May  3.    Melting  of  the  gold  and  silver  -  -     94 

Amount  of  the  ransom              -  -  -     95 

Prices  of  provisions  -                -  -  -     98 

Golden  ornaments    -                 -  -  -     99 

Accusations  against  Atahuallpa  -  -    ib. 

Murder  of  Atahuallpa              -  -  -  102 

Appearance  of  a  comet            .  _  -  106 

Return  of  Spaniards  with  gold  -  -  107 

1534.  July  3.    Return  of  the  author  to  Spain  -  -  109 

Letter  of  Hernando  Pizarro. 

Address  to  the  Royal  Audience         -  -  -  -  113 

March  to  Cassamarca         ...  -  -     ib. 

Interview  with  Atahuallpa  _  .  .  -  115 

Approach  of  Atahuallpa    -----  117 
Capture  of  Atahuallpa       -  -  -  -  -118 

Advance  to  Guamachuco   -  •  -  -  -  120 

March  *o  Pachacamac        -  -  -  -  -  121 

Account  of  Pachacamac     -----  123 
March  to  Xauxa  .  _  -  -  -  125 

Return  to  Cassamarca       -----  126 
Account  of  the  treasure     -  -  -  -  -    ib. 

Report  on  the   Distribution  of  the  Ransom  of  Atahu- 
allpa, CERTIFIED  BY  THE  NOTARY  PeDRO  SaNCHO  -    131 


Francisco  de  Xeres,  the  Secretary  of  Pizarro,  wrote 
his  account  of  the  early  days  of  the  conquest  of 
Peru,  on  the  spot,  by  order  of  his  master.  He  sailed 
from  San  Lucar,  with  Pizar^ro,  in  January  1530,  was 
with  the  conqueror  in  his  voyage,  in  his  march  along 
the  Peruvian  coast  and  across  the  Andes,  and  was 
an  eye-witness  of  the  events  at  Cassamarca,  down  to 
the  murder  of  the  Ynca  Atahuallpa.  He  returned 
to  Seville  on  July  3rd,  1534,  after  an  absence  of  four  and  a  half,  with  the  first  instalments  of  gold. 
His  friends  lived  at  Seville,  and  I  gather  from  Argote 
de  Molina^  that  he  came  of  a  respectable  family  set- 
tled at  Ubeda ;  but  nothing  is  known  of  himself 
personally,  beyond  what  can  be  deduced  from  his 

The  narrative  of  Xeres  appears  to  have  been 
printed  at  Seville  in  1534,  the  year  of  his  return, 
but  this  first  edition  is  extremely  scarce.  The  second 
edition,  which  was  very  carelessly  printed,  appeared 
at  Salamanca  in   1547,  and  is  also  very  rare.     The 

^  Nohleza  de  Andalusia  (Sc villa,  1588),  p.  &&.  Argote  de  Mo- 
lina gives  the  ai'ms  of  the  Xeres  family.  Vert,  in  base  waves  of 
the  sea  azure  and.  argent,  on  them  a  tower  argent  and  fastened  to 
11  (I,  boat  iritlt  its  oar  or.  On  a  bordure  gules  eight  St.  Andrevj's 
'.Tiisses  or. 


third,  and  best  known  Spanish  edition,  was  published 
at  Madrid,  in  the  collection  of  Don  Andres  Gonzalez 
Barcia,'^  in  1749.  The  work  was  translated  into 
ItaHan  by  a  native  of  Tudela,  named  Domingo  de 
Gaztelii,  who  was  Secretary  to  Lope  de  Soria,  Am- 
bassador to  Venice  for  Charles  V,  and  published  at 
Venice  in  1535.  A  second  edition  of  the  Italian 
version  was  published  at  Venice,  in  the  collection  of 
Ramusio,^  in  1556.  Purchas  gives  a  very  brief 
notice  of  it,  in  his  Filgrimes;*  and  Ticknor  mentions 
the  work  in  his  history  of  Spanish  literature.^  It  is 
much  quoted  by  Robertson,  Prescott,  and  Helps,  in 
their  accounts  of  the  conquest  of  Peru.  A  careful 
French  version  was  published  at  Paris,  by  M.  Ter- 
naux  Compans,^  in  his  series  of  works  on  Spanish 
America,  in  1837 ;  but  no  complete  English  transla- 
tion has  hitherto  been  made. 

As  the  account  of  an  intelligent  and  observant 
eye-witness,  the  story  told  by  Francisco  de  Xeres, 
of  the  most  stirring  episode  in  the  wonderful  history 
of  Spanish  conquests,  is  exceedingly  interesting. 
Some  portions  of  the  story,  here  and  there,  are  told 
in  more  detail  by  Herrera  and  other  compilers,  but, 
in  reading  their  versions,  we  miss  the  feeling  that 
the  author  was  an  actor  in  the  deeds  he  narrates ; 

2  "  Historiadores  Primitivos  de  las  Indias  Occidentales,"  iii,  p. 
179.  ^  Bamusio,  iii,  pp.  378-98. 

*  Purchas,  Pilgrimes,  iv,  pp.  1491-94. 

^  Ticknor,  i,  p.  521. 

6  '■^Voyages,  relations  et  memoires  originaux  pour  servir  a  Vhistoire 
de  la  decouverte  de  VAmerique"  (Paris,  1837).  H.  Ternaux 


and  thus,  in  Xeres,  there  is  a  freshness  and  reality 
which  no  other  published  account  of  the  conquest 
can  impart.  Xeres  himself  relates  the  proceedings 
of  the  Governor  Francisco  Pizarro.  But  he  has 
given  much  increased  value  to  his  work,  by  embody- 
ing in  it  the  report  by  Miguel  Astete,  another  eye- 
witness, of  the  expedition  of  Hernando  Pizarro,  to 
the  famous  temple  of  Pachacamac.  This  remarkable 
journey  of  Hernando  in  quest  of  gold,  undertaken 
by  a  mere  handful  of  men  into  the  heart  of  an  un- 
known land,  is  as  attractive  to  the  imagination  as 
the  incredible  audacity  of  Francisco's  entei-prise. 
Xeres  and  Astete  were  both  eye-witnesses,  and  their 
detailed  narratives  combine  to  record  the  incidents 
of  two  of  the  most  surprising  marches  in  the  history 
of  Spanish  discovery. 

The  letter  of  Hernando  Pizarro  to  the  Royal 
Audience  of  Santo  Domingo,''  which  follows  the  nar- 
rative of  Xeres,  was  written  when  that  ruthless  con- 
queror was  on  his  way  to  Spain,  with  the  king's 
share  of  the  spoils.  It  goes  over  exactly  the  same 
ground  as  the  Reports  of  Xeres  and  Astete,  it  is 
peculiarly  valuable  as  containing  the  observations  of 
the  man  of  highest  rank  in  the  expedition  who  could 
write,  and  the  slight  variations  between  the  accounts 
of  Xeres  and  Pizarro,  in  relating  the  same  incidents, 
are  particularly  interesting.  One  very  odious  pe- 
culiarity of  Hernando  Pizarro  was,  that  he  habitually 

7  In  the  "  Historia  General"  of  Oviedo,  cap.  xv,  lib.  43.  Re- 
printed in  the  "  Vidas  de  Espanoles  celebres,  par  Don  Manuel 
Josef  Qiiiidanci"  (Paris,  1845),  p.  180, 


tortured  the  Indians  when  he  wished  to  obtain  in- 
formation from  them.  Yet  on  the  three  occasions 
on  which  he  mentions  having  apphed  the  torture,  in 
this  letter,  he  was  told  lies.  One  would  have 
thought  that  so  acute  an  observer  would  have  dis- 
covered that  this  was  a  very  inefficient  method  of 
conducting  the  operations  of  an  Intelligence  Depart- 
ment. The  fourth  document  in  this  volume  is  the 
Report  of  Pedro  Sancho  on  the  distribution  of  the 
ransom  of  Atahuallpa  f  in  which  he  gives  the 
amounts  received  by  each  of  the  conquerors. 

Hernando  Pizarro  and  Miguel  de  Astete  give  us 
the  first  account  of  the  temple  of  Pachacamac  on 
the  Peruvian  coast,  which  was  afterwards  described 
by  Cieza  de  Leon  and  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega,  and 
the  real  significance  of  which  is  not  fully  understood, 
and  has  been  a  good  deal  exaggerated.  The  subject 
is  one  which  may  appropriately  be  discussed  in  an 
Introduction  to  the  narratives  of  Hernando  Pizarro 
and  Astete  ;  and  the  following  remarks  will  perhaps 
invest  them  with  some  additional  interest. 

The  famous  temple  on  the  Pacific  coast  has  usually 
been  supposed  to  have  been  the  only  temple  to  the 
Supreme  Being  in  Peru ;  and  it  has  even  been  sug- 
gested that,  as  such,  it  is  older  than  the  time  of  the 
Yncas,  and  that  they  adopted  this  worship  from 
another  people.     Mr.  Prescott^  says  that  no  temple 

*  From  the  inedited  work  of  Francisco  Lopez  de  Caravantes. 
It  is  reprinted  in  the  "Vidas  de  Espafioles  celebres,  por  Don  flannel 
Josef  Quintana"  (Paris,  1845j,  p.  185. 

"  Prescottj  i,  p.  85. 


was  raised  to  Pachacamac,  the  Creator  of  the  World, 
save  one  only  which  took  its  name  from  the  Deity 
Himself;  that  it  existed  before  the  country  came 
under  the  sway  of  the  Yncas,  and  was  a  resort  of 
pilgrims  from  remote  parts  of  the  land ;  and  that 
these  circumstances  suggest  the  idea  that  the  wor- 
ship of  this  Great  Spirit  did  not  originate  with  the 
Peruvian  Princes.  Mr.  Helps^  also  says  that  a  temple 
to  Pachacamac  existed  before  the  time  of  the  Yncas, 
and  that  they  artfully  connected  this  Deity  with 
their  own  religion,  making  out  that  the  Sun  was  his 
father,  and  thus  strengthening  themselves  by  alliance 
with  this  primaeval  Deity.  Rivero  adopts  the  same 
view,  namely  that  the  Gods  Con  and  Pachaca- 
mac were  early  deities,  whose  temple  was  on  the 
sea-coast,  and  that  the  Yncas  cunningly  adopted 
their  worship,  saying  that  these  gods  were  sons  of 
the  Sun.^  There  is  no  adequate  authority  for  these 
theories,  and  they  seem  to  have  arisen  from  a  mis- 
apprehension of  the  story  as  told  by  early  writers. 
The   inhabitants    of    the    Peruvian    coast,    called 

1  Helps,  iii,  p.  498.  The  name  of  Con,  given  by  Mr.  Helps, 
from  Las  €asas,  as  the  father  of  Pachacamac,  has  originated  in 
some  blunder  among  the  Spanish  writers.  It  is  not  an  Ynca 
word  at  all,  and  the  legend  concerning  this  Con  has  no  connection 
whatever  with  any  Ynca  people.  See  also  Gomara,  Hist,  de  Las 
hidias,  cap.  cxxii.  The  prefix  Con  is  found  in  the  names  applied 
to  sacred  things  by  the  coast  people,  and  it  lingered  still  longer 
in  the  valleys  of  Huarochiri.  Its  meaning  is  now  lost,  but  it  be- 
longed to  the  coast  language.  Thus  there  was  a  god  in  Huaro- 
chiri called  Coniraya,  and  the  general  name  of  all  small  stone 
idols  in  Huarochiri  was  Conopa.     See  Avila  MS. 

^  Antiguedades  Feruanas,  p.  144. 


Yu7icas  by  their  Ynca  conquerors,  were  an  entirely 
distinct  race  from  the  people  of  the  Andes,  with  a 
language  differing  both  in  its  vocabulary  and  gram- 
matical construction.  After  long  and  fierce  wars 
they  were  conquered  by  the  Yncas,  their  language 
was  superseded  by  Quichua,  many  were  sent  as  colo- 
nists into  the  interior,  Ynca  colonists  settled  on- the 
coast,  and  the  nationaUty  of  the  Yuncas  was  de- 
stroyed Very  little  can  now  be  learnt  respecting 
them.  The  coast  valleys  were  densely  peopled,  as  is 
shown  by  the  fact  of  ruined  towns  being  always 
found  on  the  verge  of  the  desert,  so  as  not  to  en- 
croach on  the  cultivatable  area.  They  had  brought 
the  art  of  irrigation  to  a  high  state  of  perfection,  and 
they  adorned  the  walls  of  their  buildings  with  richly 
coloured  paintings.  We  have  no  dictionary  of  their 
language,  but  we  have  a  grammar  and  vocabulary 
by  Carrera,^  and  a  few  specimens  of  one  of  its  dialects 
preserved  by  Bishop  Ore.*  Of  the  nature  of  their 
religion  we  know  still  less.  Avila  has  recorded 
some  curious  traditions,^  and  it  would  seem,  from 
the  proceedings  of  Arriaga,  the  extirpator  of  idola- 
try, that  they  were  much  addicted  to  sorcery  and 
fortune- telling.^     Their    gods    were   made    to   give 

'  Arte  de  la  lengua  de  los  valles  del  Obispado  de  Truxlllo ;  jpor 
Bon  Fernando  de  la  Carrera  (Lima,  1644). 

*  The  Mochica  spoken  once  in  the  valleys  of  Huarcu  (Caiiete), 
Runahuanac  (Lunahuana),  and  Chiucha.  "  liituale  seu  Manuale 
Peruanum;  por  Lu.^ovic-um  Hieronymum  Oremtm"  (Neapoli,  1607). 

^  In  his  narrative  of  the  errors,  false  gods,  and  other  diabolical 
rites  of  the  Indians  of  Huarochiri.  MS.  in  the  Biblioteca  Nacional 
at  Madrid,  B.  35. 

^  "  Extirpacion  de  la  idolatria  do  los  Indios  del  Peru ;  por  Pedro 


out  oracles,  and  the  shrines  became  rich  and  im- 
portant, in  proportion  to  the  credit  they  attained  in 
forecasting  events.  Thus,  there  was  a  famous  oracle 
in  the  valley,  thence  called  R'lmac,  or  "the  Speaker", 
by  the  Ynca  conquerors  ;  and  a  still  more  renowned 
one  was  the  fish-god  in  the  city,  afterwards  called  by 
the  Ynca,s  Fachacamac,  to  which  pilgrims  resorted 
from  all  parts  of  the  coast.  But  this  fish-god  was 
not  Pachacamac,  nor  was  the  word  Pachacamac 
known  to  the  people  of  the  coast  before  they  were 
conquered  by  the  Yncas.  It  is  an  Ynca  word,  and 
is  wholly  foreign  to,  and  unconnected  with,  the  coast 
language.  The  priests  of  the  fish-god,  it  would  seem, 
became  famous  as  fortune-tellers, ;  their  shrine  was 
resorted  to  by  pilgrims  from  distant  valleys,  and  a 
large  city  grew  up  around  it,  on  the  margin  of  the 
sea,  and  of  the  rich  vale  of  Lurin.  The  name  of 
the  deity  has  not  been  preserved,  but  it  certainly 
was  not  Pachacamac. 

In  course  of  time  the  coast  valleys  were  conquered 
by  the  Yncas,  who  gave  them  Quichua  names.  Nasca, 
Pisco,  Punahuanac,  Pachacamac,  Rimac,  Huaman, 
etc.,  are  all  pure  Quichua  names.  It  seems  clear, 
therefore,  that,  when  the  Ynca  Garcilasso  tells  us 
that  the  coast  lord  Cuismancu  had  adopted  the  wor- 
ship of  Pachacamac  from  the  Yncas,  and  had  built  a 
temple  to  him,  in  which  however  he  placed  the  fish 
and  fox-gods  of  the  Yuncas,  that  his  ideas  were  con- 

Ju^e  de  Arriarja"  (Lima,  1621).     The  old  fanatic  says  that   he 
punished  sixty-three  wizards,  in  the  coast  valleys. 


fused/  He  assumed  that  there  was  a  worship  of 
Pachacamac  because  the  place  had  received  that 
name;  but  the  fish  and  fox-gods  are  a  clear  proof  that 
a  Supreme  Being  was  not  worshipped  there.  In  short 
the  word  Pachacamac  had  nothing  to  do  with  the  re- 
Hgion  of  the  coast  people.  The  worship  of  the  Supreme 
Being,  under  the  names  of  Fa.chsiCSim.SiQ'^  {Creator  of  the 
World)  and  Pachayachachic"  {Teacher  of  the  World), 
formed  a  prominent  feature  in  the  rehgion  of  the 
Yncas.  The  names  occur,  and  have  the  first  place,  in 
nearly  all  the  ceremonial  prayers  of  the  Yncas  given 
by  Molina.^  When  the  Yncas  conquered  the  coast- 
city  of  the  fish-god,  they  assigned  to  it  the  name  of 
Pachacamac,  for  some  reason  that  has  not  been  pre- 
served, possibly  on  account  of  its  size  and  importance. 
The  Yncas  frequently  named  places  after  their 
deities  or  sacred  festivals.  Thus,  besides  this  Pacha- 
camac, we  have  another  at  Tumebamba,  and  Vilca- 
nota,  Fz7ca-pampa,  Fi7ca-cunca,  ^z^aca-chaca,  Huaca- 
puncu,  i2a?/m^-pampa,  and  many  more.^ 

^  Conim.  Real.,  Pt.  i,  lib.  vi,  cap.  30,  Herrera  is  still  more  in 
the  dark.  He  says  that  the  Yncas  believed  in  a  Creator  of  all 
things  called  Viracocha,  to  whom  they  built  a  very  rich  temple 
called  Pachiamac.     Dec.  v,  lib.  iv,  cap.  4. 

®  From  Pacha  (the  world)  and  camac  the  participle  of  Camani 
(I  create).  See  G.  de  la  Vega,  i,  lib.  ii,  cap.  22  ;  and  lib,  v, 
cap.  12. 

*  From  Pacha  (the  world)  and  YarJmchic,  participle  of  Yacha- 
chini  (I  teach).  See  Acosta,  lib.  v,.cap.  12  ;  G.  de  la  Vega,  Pt.  i, 
lib.  V,  cap.  18  ;  and  Molina  MS. 

'  Belacion  de  las  fabulas  y  ritos  de  los  Yncas,  hecha  jpor  Chris- 
toval  de  Molina.     MS.  at  Madrid,  B.  35. 

'^  Vilca  is  a  sacred  place,  Htiaca  an  analogous  but  more  com- 
prehensive term,  and  Raymi  the  great  festival  of  the  Sun, 


But  they  never  built  any  temple  to  Pachacamac, 
md  there  never  was  one  to  that  deity,  except  at 
Cuzco.  On  the  summit  of  the  lofty  hill,  overhang- 
ing the  town  of  Pachacamac,  they  erected  a  temple 
of  the  Sun,  which  was  approached  by  three  wide 
terraces.  Rivero  states^  that  the  temple  of  the  Sun 
was  not  on  the  top  of  the  hill,  but  Cieza  de  Leon'  dis- 
tinctly asserts  that  the  loftiest  part  was  set  aside  as  a 
temple  of  the  Sun.  Astete  also  says  that,  adjoining 
the  ''  mosque"  (that  is,  the  temple  of  the  fish-god), 
there  was  a  house  of  the  Sun,  situated  on  a  hill,  with 
five  surrounding  walls.  Hernando  Pizarro  tells  us 
that  the  store-rooms  of  gold  and  the  convents  of 
women  were  at  the  foot  of  the  hill,  and  that  the 
chief  priest  and  the  building  containing  the  fish-god 
(devil,  as  he  calls  it)  were  on  the  terrace  platform 
above.  Higher  up  there  were  two  other  wide  terraces, 
and  the  temple  of  the  Sun  was  on  the  summit. 

The  Yncas  built  a  temple  of  the  Sun  on  the  hill 
top  ;  though,  in  accordance  with  their  usual  policy, 
they  allowed  the  wooden  fish  idol  to  remain  in  its 
shrine  below  ;  which  they  even  condescended  to 
consult  as  an  oracle,  from  conciliatory  motives.  But 
its  importance  waned  after  the  Ynca  conquest,  the 
pilgrims  fell  oft'  in  numbers,  and  the  town  began  to 
lose  its  citizens.  When  Hernando  Pizarro  arrived 
in  1533,  the  greater  part  of  the  outer  wall  had 
fallen,  and  there  were  many  houses  in  ruins.  Here 
is  an  additional  proof  that  this  was  not  a  temple  to 

3  Antiq.  Per.,  p.  291. 

■*  Sec  my  translation,  p.  203. 


the  Ynca  deity  Pachacamac,  "the  only  temple  in 
Peru  dedicated  to  the  Supreme  Being".  If  such 
had  been  the  case,  its  importance  would  have  in- 
creased, and  not  diminished,  after  the  conquest  by 
the  Yncas,  in  whose  prayers  the  Creator  ever  had 
the  first  place.  There  is  no  reason  for  supposing 
that  pilgrims  ever  resorted  to  the  shrine  of  the  fish- 
god  from  any  part  of  the  empire  of  the  Yncas,  except 
the  coast  valleys  ;  and  the  diversity  of  skulls  alleged 
to  have  been  found  among  the  ruins  is  sufficiently 
accounted  for  by  the  presence  of  mitimaes  or  colonists, 
and  by  the  marches  of  Ynca  armies.^ 

The  conclusions  I  have  formed  are,  that  the  wor- 
sliip  of  Pachacamac,  the  Creator  of  the  World,  was 
a  part  of  the  Ynca  religious  belief ;  and  that  it  was 
whollv  unconnected  with  the  coast  Indians  :  that 
there  never  was  any  temple  to  Pachacamac  at  the 
place  on  the  coast  to  which  the  Yncas  gave  that 
name,  for  some  reason  now  forgotten ;  that  the 
natives  worshipped  a  fish-god  there  under  a  name 
now  lost,  which  became  famous  as  an  oracle,  and 
attracted  pilgrims  ;  and  that,  when  the  Yncas  con- 
quered the  place,  they  raised  a  temple  to  the  Sun, 
on  the  summit  of  the  hill  commanding  the  city  of 
the  fish-god,  whence  the  glorious  luminary  could  be 
seen  to  descend  behind  the  distant  horizon,  and 
bathe  the  ocean  in  floods  of  lio^ht.  These  conclusions 
are  supported  by  the  writings  of  Garci lasso  de  la 
Vega  and  Cieza  de  Leon,  and  by  the  report  of 
Astete ;  and  they  agree  with  all  that  is  recorded  of 

'"  Sec  my  translation  of  Cieza  de  Leon.     Note,  p.  252. 


the  religions  belief  of  the  Yncas,  and  with  the  few 
facts  that  can  be  gathered,  from  various  sources, 
touching  the  Yuncas  or  coast  Indians. 

The  present  Editor  examined  the  ruins  of  Pacha- 
camac,  in  much  detail,  in  1853  and  again  in  1854, 
and  made  a  plan  of  them.  He  again  visited  them 
on  the  19th  of  February,  1860,  accompanied  by  an 
Irish  chieftain  and  two  Englishmen.  We  ascended 
the  terraces  on  horseback  to  the  platform  of  the 
temple  of  the  San  ;  where  the  old  Catholic  chieftain 
broke  out  in  praise  of  the  Yncas.  We  reminded  him 
of  their  heresy,  but  he  repeated,  as  he  drained  his 
sherry  flask,  "  Here  is  to  the  Yncas  !  God  rest  their 
souls  in  peace  !"  We  rode  back  through  the  narrow 
streets  to  Lurin,  and,  in  memory  of  the  event,  one 
of  our  party  wrote  the  following  lines,  contrasting 
the  Catholic  Hernando  Pizarro  of  the  sixteenth,  with 
the  Catholic  Hibernian  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

The  sunlight  glanced  from  helm  and  spear 

Upon  the  terraced  height. 
And  awe-struck  crowds  had  gathered  round 

Beneath  the  temple  bright. 

High  on  the  ruined  altar  stone 

The  iron  conqueror  stood, 
And  o'er  the  broken  idol  held 

Outstretch'd  the  holy  rood. 

And  as  he  preach'd  God's  truth,  his  brow 

Darker  and  darker  grew, 
And  the  people  feared  the  bloodstain'd  man, 

And  they  feared  his  bloodstain'd  crew. 

For  his  speech  was  cruel  and  fierce  to  them. 
And  hard  to  understand. 



As  he  cursed  the  children  of  the  Sun, 
The  rulers  of  the  land. 

*  *  * 

Full  many  a  year  is  passed  and  gone 
Since  that  strange  scene  befell, 

Of  many  a  tale  of  blood  and  woe 
The  silent  ruins  tell. 

We  stood  upon  the  temple  wall, 
And  fierce  the  sunlight  beat 

Upon  the  sand  that  compassed  round 
The  city  at  our  feet. 

The  ruin'd  terrace  gardens  told 
Of  splendour  passed  away, 

And  bleaching  in  the  Sun,  the  bones 
Of  Priest  and  WarWor  lay. 

Then  one  who  held  the  ancient  creed 
Of  him  who  preached  of  yore. 

And  bowed  before  the  self-same  sign. 
The  cross  the  conqueror  bore. 

Raised  high  the  wine  cup  in  his  hand, 
"  We'll  drink  the  noble  dead  ! 

The  Princely  Rulers  of  the  land  ! 
God  rest  their  souls,"'  he  said. 

As  through  the  silent  streets  below 
We  rode  among  the  dead. 

We  mused  which  held  the  faith  of  Him 
Whose  blood  for  all  was  shed. 

Or  he  who  cursed  the  Pagan  Kings, 
And  bade  their  empire  cease. 

Or  he  who  prayed  above  their  graves, 
"God  rest  their  souls  in  peace". 




Called  New  Castille,  conquered  by  F7'ancisco  Pizarro, 

captain  to   His  Majesty  the  Emperor, 

our  Master. 

Dedicated  to  His  Majesty  the  Emperor  by 


Native  of  the  most  noble  and  most  loyal  town  of  Seville,  Secretary 
to   the    said    Captain    in    all    the    Provinces    and    Countries 
conquered    in    New    Castille,   and   one  of  the   first 
conquerors  of  that  country. 


Second  Edition. 



Because  the  Divine  Providence;  and  the  fortune  of  Caesar  ; 
and  the  prudence,  fortitude,  military  discipline,  labours, 
perilous  navigations,  and  battles  of  the  Spaniards,  vassals 
of  the  most  invincible  Emperor  of  the  Roman  Empire,  our 
natural  King  and  Lord,  v^ill  cause  joy  to  the  faithful  and 
terror  to  the  infidels  ;  for  the  glory  of  God  our  Lord  and 
for  the  service  of  the  Catholic  Imperial  Majesty ;  it  has 
seemed  good  to  me  to  write  this  narrative,  and  to  send  it 
to  your  Majesty,  that  all  may  have  a  knowledge  of  what  is 
here  related.  It  will  be  to  the  glory  of  God,  because  they 
have  conquered  and  brought  to  our  holy  Catholic  Faith  so 
vast  a  number  of  heathens,  aided  by  His  holy  guidance.  It 
will  be  to  the  honour  of  our  Emperor  because,  by  reason  of 
his  great  power  and  good  fortune,  such  events  happened  in 
his  time.  It  will  give  joy  to  the  faithful  that  such  battles 
have  been  won,  such  provinces  discovered  and  conquered, 
such  riches  brought  home  for  the  King  and  for  themselves ; 
and  that  such  terror  has  been  spread  among  the  infidels, 
such  admiration  excited  in  all  mankind. 

For  when,  either  in  ancient  or  modem  times,  have  such 
great  exploits  been  achieved  by  so  few  against  so  many ; 
over  so  many  climes,  across  so  many  seas,  over  such  dis- 
tances by  land,  to  subdue  the  unseen  and  unknown  ? 
Whose  deeds  can  be  compared  with  those  of  Spain  ?  Not 
surely  those  of  the  Jews,  nor  of  the  Greeks,  nor  even  of  the 


Romans,  of  whom  more  is  written  than  of  any  other  people. 
For  though  the  Romans  subjugated  so  many  provinces,  yet 
they  did  so  with  an  equal  number  of  troops  or  but  slightly 
less  in  number,  and  the  lands  were  known,  and  well  supplied 
with  provisions,  and  their  captains  and  armies  were  paid. 
But  our  Spaniards,  being  few  in  number,  never  having  more 
than  two  hundred  or  three  hundred  men  together,  and  some- 
times only  a  hundred  and  even  fewer  (only  once,  and  that 
twenty  years  ago,  with  the  Captain  Pedrarias,  was  there  the 
larger  number  of  fifteen  hundred  men) ;  and  those  who  have 
come  at  different  times  being  neither  paid  nor  pressed,  but 
serving  of  their  own  free  wills  and  at  their  own  costs,  have, 
in  our  times,  conquered  more  territory  than  has  ever  been 
known  before,  or  than  all  the  faithful  and  infidel  princes  pos- 
sessed. Moreover,  they  supported  themselves  on  the  savage 
food  of  the  people,  who  had  no  knowledge  of  bread  or  wine, 
suffering  on  a  diet  of  herbs,  fruits,  and  roots.  Yet  they 
have  made  conquests  which  are  now  known  to  all  the  world. 
I  will  only  write,  at  present,  of  what  befell  in  the  conquest 
of  New  Castillo ;  and  I  will  not  write  much,  in  order  to 
avoid  prolixity. 

The  South  Sea  having  been  discovered,  and  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Tierra  Firme  having  been  conquered  and  pacified, 
the  Governor  Pedrarias  de  Avila  founded  and  settled  the 
cities  of  Panama  and  of  Nata,  and  the  town  of  Nombre  de 
Dios.  At  this  time  the  Captain  Francisco  Pizarro,  son  of 
the  Captain  Gonzalo  Pizarro,  a  knight  of  the  city  of  Truxillo, 
was  living  in  the  city  of  Panama  ;  possessing  his  house,  his 
farm,  and  his  Indians,  as  one  of  the  principal  people  of  the 
land,  which  indeed  he  always  was,  having  distinguished 
himself  in  the  conquest  and  settling,  and  in  the  service  of 
his  Majesty.  Being  at  rest  and  in  repose,  but  full  of  zeal 
to  continue  his  labours  and  to  perform  other  more  distin- 
guished services  for  the  royal  crown,  he  sought  permission 
from  Pedrarias  to  discover  that  coast  of  the  South  Sea  to 


the  eastward.  He  spent  a  large  part  of  his  fortune  on  a 
good  ship  which  he  built,  and  on  necessary  supplies  for  the 
voyage,  and  he  set  out  from  the  city  of  Panama  on  the  14th 
day  of  the  month  of  November,  in  the  year  1524.^  He  had 
a  hundred  and  twelve  Spaniards  in  his  company,  besides 
some  Indian  servants.  He  commenced  a  voyage  in  which 
they  suffered  many  hardships,  the  season  being  winter  and 
unpropitious.  I  shall  omit  many  things  that  happened 
which  might  be  tedious,  and  will  only  relate  the  notable 
events,  and  those  that  are  most  to  the  purpose. 

Seventy  days  after  leaving  Panama  they  landed  at  a  port 
which  was  afterwards  named  Port  Famine.  They  had  pre- 
viously landed  at  many  ports,  but  had  abandoned  them  be- 
cause there  were  no  inhabitants.  The  captain  and  eighty 
men  remained  in  this  port  (the  remainder  having  died)  ; 
and  because  their  provisions  had  come  to  an  end,  and  there 
were  none  in  that  land,  he  sent  the  ship,  with  the  sailors 
and  an  officer,^  to  the  Isle  of  Pearls  (which  is  in  the  juris- 
diction of  Panama)  to  obtain  supplies,  thinking  that,  at  the 
end  of  ten  or  twelve  days,  they  would  return  with  succour. 
But  Fortune  is  always,  or  generally,  adverse  ;  and  the  ship 
never  returned  for  forty-seven  days,  during  which  time  the 
captain  and  his  companions  subsisted  on  a  sea-weed  that 
they  found  on  the  shore,  collecting  it  with  much  trouble. 
Some  of  them,  being  sorely  weakened,  died.  They  also 
fed  on  some  very  bitter  palm  fruits.  During  the  absence  of 
the  ship,  in  going  and  returning,  more  than  twenty  men 
died.  When  the  ship  returned  with  supplies,  the  captain 
and  mariners  related  how,  when  the  supplies  did  not  come, 
they  had  eaten  a  tanned  cow-hide  which  had  been  used  to 
cover  the  pump.  They  boiled  it  and  divided  it  amongst 
themselves.  The  survivors  were  refreshed  with  the  supplies 
brought  by  the   ship,  consisting  of  maize  and  pigs ;    and 

*  Herrera  gives  the  same  date.     Cieza  de  Leon  and  Garcilasso  de  la 
Vega  have  1525.  ^  Named  Montenegro. 


the  captain  set  out  to  continue  his  voyage.  He  came  to 
a  town  on  the  sea-shore^  built  in  a  strong  position  and  sur- 
rounded by  pallisades.  Here  he  found  provisions  in  abun- 
dance, but  the  inhabitants  fled  from  the  town.  The  next 
day  a  number  of  armed  men  came.  They  were  warlike  and 
well  armed ;  while  the  Christians  were  reduced  by  hunger 
and  their  previous  hardships.  The  Christians  were  defeated 
and  their  captain  received  seven  wounds,  the  slightest  of 
which  was  dangerous.  The  Indians,  who  had  wounded  him, 
left  him  because  they  thought  he  was  dead.  Seventeen 
other  men  were  wounded  with  him,  and  five  were  killed. 
Seeing  the  result  of  this  disaster,  and  the  small  chance  of 
being  able  to  cure  and  revive  his  people,  the  captain  em- 
barked and  returned  to  the  land  of  Panama,  landing  at  an 
Indian  village  near  the  island  of  Pearls,  called  Chuchama.^ 
Thence  he  sent  the  ship  to  Panama,^  for  she  had  become 
unseaworthy  by  reason  of  the  teredo  ;  and  all  that  had  be- 
fallen was  reported  to  Pedrarias,  while  the  captain  remained 
behind  to  refresh  himself  and  his  companions. 

When  the  ship  arrived  at  Panama  it  was  found  that,  a 
few  days  before,  the  Captain  Diego  de  Almagro  had  sailed 
in  search  of  the  Captain  Pizarro,  his  companion,  with  an- 
other ship  and  seventy  men.  He  sailed  as  far  as  the  village 
where  the  Captain  Pizarro  was  defeated,  and  the  Captain 
Almagro  had  another  encounter  with  the  Indians  of  that 
place,  and  was  also  defeated.  He  lost  an  eye,  and  many 
Christians  were  wounded;  but,  nevertheless,  the  Indians 
abandoned  the  village,  which  was  set  on  fire.  They  again 
set  out,  and  followed  the  coast  until  they  came  to  a  great 
river,  which  they  called  San  Juan*  because  they  arrived  there 
on  his  day.    They  there  found  signs  of  gold,  but  there  being 

'  The  province  of  Chuchama  was  discovered  by  Pascual  de  i^  ndagoya 
in  1522.     See  my  translation  of  Andagoya,  p.  40. 
'  In  command  of  his  treasurer,  Nicolas  de  Ribera. 
■*  A  few  miles  north  of  the  port  of  Buenaventura,  in  New  Granada. 


no  traces  of  the  Captain  Pizarro,  the  Captain  Almagro  re- 
turned to  Chuchama,  where  he  found  his  comrade.  They 
agreed  that  the  Captain  Almagro  should  go  to  Panama, 
repair  the  ships,  collect  more  men  to  continue  the  enter- 
prise, and  defray  the  expenses,  which  amounted  to  more 
than  teu  thousand  castellanos .^  At  Panama  much  obstruc- 
tion was  caused  by  Pedrarias  and  others,  who  said  that  the 
voyage  should  not  be  persisted  in,  and  that  his  Majesty 
would  not  be  served  by  it.  The  Captain  Almagro,  with  the 
authority  given  him  by  his  comrade,  was  very  constant  in 
prosecuting  the  work  he  had  commenced,  and  he  required 
the  Governor  Pedrarias  not  to  obstruct  him,  because  he 
believed,  with  the  help  of  God,  that  his  Majesty  would  be 
well  served  by  that  voyage.  Thus  Pedrarias  was  forced  to 
allow  him  to  engage  men.  He  set  out  from  Panama  with  a 
hundred  and  ten  men ;  and  went  to  the  place  where  Pizarro 
waited  with  another  fifty  of  the  first  hundred  and  ten  who 
sailed  with  him,  and  of  the  seventy  who  accompanied  Alma- 
gro when  he  went  in  search.  The  other  hundred  and  thirty 
were  dead.  The  two  captains,  in  their  two  ships,  sailed 
with  a  hundred  and  sixty  men,  and  coasted  along  the 
land.^  When  they  thought  they  saw  signs  of  habitations, 
they  went  on  shore  in  three  canoes  they  had  with  them, 
rowed  by  sixty  men,  and  so  they  sought  for  provisions. 

They  continued  to  sail  in  this  way  for  three  years,  suffer- 
ing great  hardships  from  hunger  and  cold.  The  greater 
part  of  the  crews  died  of  hunger,  insomuch  that  there  were 
not  fifty  surviving,  and  during  all  those  three  years  they 
discovered  no  good  land.  All  was  swamp  and  inundated 
country,  without  inhabitants.  The  good  country  they  dis- 
covered was  as  far  as  the  river  San  Juan,  where  the  Captain 

*  The  value  of  the  castellano  varied.  At  this  time  it  was  worth  about 
eight  shillings. 

«  Their  experienced  and  resolute  Pilot  was  Bartolom6  Ruiz,  a  native 
of  Moguer,  in  Andalusia. 


Pizarro  remained  with  the  few  surv^ivors,  sending  a  captain''' 
with  the  smaller  ship  to  discover  some  good  land  further 
along  the  coast.  He  sent  the  other  ship,  with  the  Captain 
Diego  de  Almagro,  to  Panama  to  get  more  men,  because 
with  the  two  vessels  together  and  so  few  men  no  discovery 
could  be  made,  and  the  people  died.  The  ship  that  was 
sent  to  discover,  returned  at  the  end  of  seventy  days  to  the 
river  of  San  Juan,  where  the  Captain  Pizarro  remained  with 
his  people,  and  reported  to  him  what  had  befallen.  They 
had  arrived  at  the  village  of  Cancebi,  which  is  on  this  coast, 
and  before  they  reached  it,  the  crew  of  the  ship  had  seen 
other  inhabited  places,  very  rich  in  gold  and  silver,  and  in- 
habited by  more  intelligent  people  than  they  had  previously 
met  with.  They  brought  six  persons  that  they  might  leai'n 
the  language  of  the  Spaniards,  together  with  gold,  silver, 
and  cloths.^  The  Captain  and  his  comrades  received  this 
news  with  so  much  joy,  that  they  forgot  all  their  former 
sufferings,  and  the  expenses  they  had  incurred,  and  con- 
ceived a  strong  desire  to  see  that  land  which  appeared  to  be 
so  inviting.  As  soon  as  the  Captain  Almagro  arrived  from 
Panama  with  a  ship  laden  with  men  and  horses,  the  two 
ships,  with  their  commanders  and  all  their  people,  set  out 
from  the  river  San  Juan^  to  go  to  that  newly-discovered 
land.  But  the  navigation  was  difficult,  they  were  detained 
so  long^  that  the  provisions  were  exhausted,  and  the  people 
were  obliged  to   go  on  shore  in  search  of  supplies.     The 

'  Ruiz,  the  Pilot. 

8  Ruiz  discovered  the  bay  of  San  Mateo  and  the  isle  of  Gallo,  and 
encountered  a  native  raft,  laden  with  merchandise  :  vases  and  mirrors 
of  silver,  and  cotton  and  woollen  cloths.  Some  of  the  people  on  board 
•were  natives  of  Tumbez ;  and  he  took  six  into  his  vessel,  intending  to 
make  them  learn  Spanish,  and  become  interpreters.  The  furthest  point 
reached  by  Ruiz  was  the  Cape  of  Passaos,  and  he  was  thus  the  first 
European  to  cross  the  line  in  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

*  They  had  constant  northerly  winds,  with  heavy  squalls,  and  storms 
of  thunder  and  lightning. 

PIZARRO    ON    THE    ISLE    OP    GALLO.  7 

ships  reached  the  bay  of  San  Mateo,  and  some  villages  to 
which  the  Spaniards  gave  the  name  of  Santiago.  Next  they 
came  to  the  villages  of  Tacamez/  on  the  sea  coast  further 
on.  These  villages  were  seen  by  the  Christians  to  be  large 
and  well  peopled ;  and  when  ninety  Spaniards  had  advanced 
a  league  beyond  the  villages  of  Tacamez,^  more  than  ten 
thousand  Indian  warriors  encountered  them  ;  but  seeing 
that  the  Christians  intended  no  evil,  and  did  not  wish  to 
take  their  goods,  but  rather  to  treat  them  peacefully  with 
much  love,  the  Indians  desisted  from  war.  In  this  land 
there  were  abundant  supplies,  and  the  people  led  well-ordered 
lives,  the  villages  having  their  streets  and  squares.  One 
village  had  more  than  three  thousand  houses,  and  others 
were  smaller. 

It  seemed  to  the  Captains  and  to  the  other  Spaniards  that 
nothing  could  be  done  in  that  land  by  reason  of  the  small- 
ness  of  their  number,  which  rendered  them  unable  to  cope 
with  the  Indians.  So  they  agreed  to  load  the  ships  with 
the  supplies  to  be  found  in  the  villages,  and  to  return  to 
an  island  called  Gallo,^  where  they  would  be  safe  until  the 
ships  arrived  at  Panama  with  the  news  of  what  had  been 
discovered,  and  to  apply  to  the  Governor  for  more  men,  in 
order  that  the  Captains  might  be  able  to  continue  their 
undertaking,  and  conquer  the  land.  Captain  Almagro  went 
in  the  ships.  Many  persons  had  written  to  the  Governor 
entreating  him  to  order  the  crews  to  return  to  Panama, 
saying  that  it  was  impossible  to  endure  more  hardships  than 
they  had  suffered  during  the  last  three  years.*  The  Gover- 
nor ordered  that  all   those  who  wished  to  go  to  Panama 

'  Atacames,  on  the  coast  of  modern  Ecuador. 

2  The  modern  Atacames. 

2  In  the  bay  of  Tumaco,  just  on  the  modern  frontier  dividing  New 
Granada  from  Ecuador.  It  had  already  been  discovered  by  the  Pilot 

♦  See  Herrera,  Dec.  iii,  lib.  x,  cap.  3 ;  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega^  Pt.  n ; 
and  Cieza  de  Leon,  cap.  cxlx. 


might  do  so,  while  those  who  desired  to  continue  the  dis- 
coveries were  at  liberty  to  remain.  Sixteen  men  stayed 
with  Pizarro/  and  all  the  rest  went  back  in  the  ships  to 

*  Thus  simply  does  Pizarro's  Secretary  tell  the  story  of  this  famous 
resolution.  A  ship  was  sent  from  Panama,  by  the  Governor,  under  the 
command  of  an  officer  named  Tafur,  to  take  back  those  who  wished  to 
return  ;  while  those  who  chose  to  remain  with  Pizarro  were  allowed  to 
do  so.  Garcilasso  says  that,  when  Pizarro  saw  his  men  electing  to  re- 
turn in  the  ship,  he  drew  his  sword  and  made  a  long  line  on  the  ground 
with  the  point.  Then,  turning  to  his  men,  he  said:  "Gentlemen!  This 
line  signifies  labour,  hunger,  thirst,  fatigue,  wounds,  sickness,  and  every 
other  kind  of  danger  that  must  be  encountered  in  this  conquest,  until 
life  is  ended.  Let  those  who  have  the  courage  to  meet  and  overcome  the 
dangers  of  this  heroic  achievement  cross  the  line  in  token  of  their  reso- 
lution and  as  a  testimony  that  they  will  be  my  faithful  companions. 
And  let  those  who  feel  unworthy  of  such  daring  return  to  Panama  ;  for 
I  do  not  wish  to  put  force  upon  any  man.  I  trust  in  God  that,  for  his 
greater  honour  and  glory,  his  eternal  Majesty  will  help  those  who  re- 
main with  me,  though  they  be  few,  and  that  we  shall  not  feel  the  want 
of  those  who  forsake  us."  On  hearing  this  speech  the  Spaniards  began 
to  go  on  board  with  all  speed,  lest  anything  should  happen  to  detain 

Herrera  tells  the  story  differently.  He  says  that  Tafur  stationed  him- 
self in  one  part  of  the  vessel  and,  drawing  a  line,  placed  Pizarro  and  the 
soldiers  on  the  other  side  of  it.  He  then  told  those  who  wished  to  return 
to  Panama  to  come  over  to  him,  and  those  who  would  remain  to  stay  on 
Pizarro's  side  of  the  line. 

Of  these  two  accounts,  that  of  Garcilasso  is  far  more  likely  to  be  true; 
for  it  is  very  improbable  that  they  would  all  have  embarked  before  the 
election  was  made.  It  would  naturally  be  made  on  the  beach  before 
they  went  on  board. 

The  authorities  also  differ  as  to  the  number  of  men  who  crossed  the 
line  and  remained  with  Pizarro.  Cieza  de  Leon,  Gomara,  Herrera,  and 
Garcilasso  say  there  were  thirteen;  Zarate  gives  the  number  at  twelve; 
Xeres  at  sixteen.  In  the  Capitulation  for  the  Conquest  of  Peru,  made 
by  Francisco  Pizarro  with  Queen  Juana  on  July  26th,  1529,  there  is 
the  following  paragraph :  "Remembering  the  great  services  that  were 
performed  in  the  said  discovery  by  Bartolome  Ruiz,  Cristoval  de  Peralta, 
Pedro  de  Candia,  Domingo  de  Soria  Luce,  Nicolas  de  Ribera,  Francisco 
de  Cuellar,  Alonzo  de  Molina,  Pedro  Alcon,  Garcia  de  Jerez,  Anton  de 
Carrion,  Alonzo  Bricefio,  Martin  de  Paz,  and  Juan  de  la  Torre ;  and 
because  you  have  besought  and  prayed  for  the  favour,  it  is  our  will  and 
pleasure  to  grant  it,  as  by  these  presents  we  do  grant  to  such  of  them  as 


Panama.  The  Captain  Pizarro  was  on  that  island  for  live 
months,  when  one  of  the  ships  returned,  in  which  he  con- 
tinued the  discoveries  for  a  hundred  leagues  further  down 
the  coast.     They  found   many  villages,  and  great  riches  ; 

are  not  Hidalgos,  that  they  shall  be  Hidalgos  acknowledged  in  those 
parts,  and  that  in  all  our  Indies  they  shall  enjoy  rank  and  immunities 
and  such  other  privileges  as  belong  to  acknowledged  Hidalgos,  and  to 
those  who  now  are  Hidalgos  we  grant  knighthood  of  gilt  spurs." 

It  has  always  been  supposed  that  these  were  the  men  who  crossed  the 
line,  and  hence  their  number  has  been  placed  at  thirteen.  But  it  is  not 
asserted  in  the  Capitulation  that  the  men  whose  names  are  given  in  it 
were  those  who  crossed  the  linci,  and  it  might  be  that  Pizarro,  in  asking 
favours  for  his  most  faithful  companions,  on  the  one  hand  omitted  one 
or  more  of  those  who  crossed  the  line,  and  on  the  other  included  some 
who  did  not  take  part  in  that  transaction,  but  who  joined  him  after- 
wards. Herrera  gives  the  names  of  the  thirteen  in  the  Capitulation, 
and  says  that  one  was  a  Mulatto.  Zarate  gives  nine  names,  all  of  which 
are  in  the  above  paragraph  of  the  Capitulation  except  one,  Alonzo  de 
Truxillo.  Zarate's  nine  are — I'edro  de  Candia,  Bartolome  Ruiz,  Nicolas 
de  Ivibera,  .luan  de  la  Torre,  Alonzo  Bricerio,  Cristoval  de  Peralta, 
Alonzo  de  Truxillo,  Francisco  de  Cuollar,  and  Alonzo  de  Molina.  Bal- 
boa adds  two  more,  Juan  Koldan  and  Bias  de  Atienza.  Garcilasso  gives 
yet  two  more,  whom  he  knew  personally.  He  says  that  the  correct  name 
of  Zarate's  Alonzo  de  Truxillo  was  Diego  de  Truxillo ;  that  there  were 
two  Riberas,  one  the  Nicolas  of  the  Capitulation,  and  the  other  Geronimo 
or  Alonzo,  he  is  not  certain  which,  whom  he  knew  personally  ;  and  that 
Francisco  Rodriguez  de  Villafuerte,  a  citizen  of  Cuzco,  whom  lie  also 
knew  personally,  was  the  first  to  walk  across  the  line. 

In  these  conflicting  ILsts,  the  names  of  Ruiz,  Candia,  Peralta,  Bricei'iO, 
Ribera,  Torre,  Cuellar,  and  Molina,  are  those  on  which  all  are  agreed. 
The  Capitulation  makes  up  the  thirteen  with  Soria  Luce,  Alcon,  .Jerez, 
Carrion,  and  Paz ;  which  five  names  Zarate  and  Garcilasso  omit. 
Zarate  axlds  Truxillo.  Gareila.sso  gives  him  also,  and  adds  another 
Ribera  and  Villa-Fuerte.     Balboa  adds  Roldan  and  Atienza. 

Xeres  had  access  to  the  best  information,  and  I  believe  his  number  of 
sixteen  to  be  correct;  including  the  Pilot  Ruiz,  who  returned  to  Panama 
to  obtain  another  vessel.  The  three  additional  names  of  Zarate  and 
Garcilaaso  may  be  supposed  to  have  been  omitted  in  the  Capitulation, 
either  intentionally  by  Pizarro  for  some  reason  of  his  own,  or  accidentally. 
The  correct  ILst  of  sixteen  will  then  stand  as  follows:  [c.  before  a  name 
meaning  that  it  occurs  in  the  Capitulation  and  Herrera;  z.  that  it  is 
given  by  Zarate;  and  c.  by  Garcilasso.]     The  two  additional  names  of 


and  they  brought  away  more  specimens  of  gold,  silver,  and 
cloths  than  had  been  found  before,  which  were  presented  by 
the  natives.    The  Captain  returned  because  the  time  granted 

Balboa  are  no  doubt  inserted  by  mistake;  but  not  so  those  of  Garcilasso; 
for  he  knew  the  men  personally. 

(c.  z.  B.  G.)  1.  Bartolome  Ruiz,  of  Moguer,  the  Pilot. 

(c.  z.  B.  G.)  2.  Pedro  de  Candia,  a  Greek.  He  commanded  Pizarro's 
artillery,  consisting  of  two  falconets ;  and  was  an  able  and  ex- 
perienced officer.  After  Pizarro's  death  he  joined  the  younger 
Abnagro,  who  killed  him  on  suspicion  of  treachery  at  the  battle 
of  Chupas.  He  left  a  half-caste  son,  who  was  at  school  with 
GarcUasso  at  Cuzco. 

(c.  z.  G.)  3.  Cristoval  de  Peralta,  a  native  of  Baeza.  He  was  one  of 
the  first  twelv^  citizens  of  Lima,  when  that  city  was  founded  by 
Pizarro  in  1535r. 

(c.  z.  B.  G.)  4.  Alonzo  Briceno,  a  native  of  Benavente.  He  was  at 
the  division  of  Atahualpa's  ransom,  and  received  the  share  of  a 
cavalry  captain. 

(c,  z.  B.  G.)  5.  Nicolas  de  Ribera,  the  Treasurer,  was  one  of  the  first 
twelve  citizens  of  Lima,  when  Pizarro  founded  that  city  on  January 
18th,  1535.  He  passed  through  all  the  stormy  period  of  the  civil 
wars  in  Peru.  He  deserted  from  Gonzalo  Pizarro  to  Gasca,  and 
was  afterwards  Captain  of  the  Guard  of  the  Royal  Seal.  He 
eventually  settled  near  Cuzco,  and  left  children  to  inherit  his 

(c.  z.  B.  G.)  6.  Juan  de  la  Torre  was  a  staunch  adherent  of  Gonzalo 
Pizarro  in  after  years,  to  whom  he  deserted  when  serving  under 
the  ill-fated  Viceroy  Blasco  Nuiiez  de  Vela.  He  carried  his 
ferocious  enmity  to  the  Viceroy  so  far  as  to  insult  his  dead  body, 
and,  pulling  the  hairs  out  of  his  beard,  stuck  them  in  his  hat- 
band. He  married  the  daughter  of  an  Indian  chief  near  Puerto 
Viejo,  and  acquired  great  wealth.  He  was  captain  of  arquebusiers 
for  Gonzalo  Pizarro  until  1548,  and  after  the  battle  of  Sacsa- 
huana  he  was  hanged  by  order  of  La  Gasca. 

(c.  z.  G.)  7.  Francisco  de  Cuellar,  a  native  of  Cuellar.  Nothing 
more  is  known  of  him. 

(c.  z.  G.)  8.  Alonzo  de  Molina,  a  native  of  Ubeda.  He  afterwards 
landed  at  Tumbez,  where  it  was  arranged  that  he  should  remain 
until  Pizarro's  return  ;  but  he  died  in  the  interval. 

(c.)  9.  Domingo  de  Soria  Luce.     Nothing  more  is  known  of  him. 

(c.)  10.  Pedro  Alcon.  He  afterwards  landed  on  the  coast  of  Peru, 
fell  in  love  with  a  Peruvian  lady,  and  refused  to  come  on  board 
again.     So  the  Pilot  Ruiz  was  obliged  to  knock  him  down  with 


by  the  Governor  had  expired,  and  the  last  day  of  the  period 
had  been  reached,  when  he  entered  the  port  of  Panama.^ 

The  two  Captains  were  so  ruined  that  they  could  no  longer 
prosecute  their  undertaking,  owing  a  large  sum  of  pesos  de 
oro.  The  Captain  Francisco  Pizarro  was  only  able  to  bor- 
row a  little  more  than  a.  thousand  castellanos'^  among  his 
friends,  with  which  sura  he  went  to  Castillo,  and  gave  an 

an  oar,  and  he  was  put  in  irons  on  the  lower  deck.     Nothing 
more  is  known  of  him. 
(c.)  11.  Garcia  de  Jerez   (or  Jar  en).     He  appears  to  have  made  a 
statement  on  the  subject  of  the  heroism  of  Pizarro  and  his  com- 
panions at  Panama  on  August  3rd,  1529.   {Doc.  Ined.^  tom.  xxvi, 
p.  260 ;  quoted  by  Helps^  iii,  p.  4'46.) 
(c.)  12.  Anton  de  Carrion.     Nothin|;,  further  is  known  of  him. 
(c.)  13.  Martin  de  Paz.     Nothing  further  is  known  of  him. 
(z.  G.)  14.  Diego  de   Truxillo  {Alonzo,  according  to  Zarate).     He 
was  afterwards  personally  known  to  Garcilasso  at  Cuzco.     Diego 
de  Truxillo  appears  to  have  written  an  account  of  the  discovery 
of  Peru,  which  is  still  in  manuscript.     "  Didacus  de  Truxillo. 
lielacion  de  la  tierra  que  descubrid  con  Dom  Francisco  Pizarro 
en  el  Peru.''''    {Antonio,  ii,  645.)    Antonio  quotes  from  the  '■'■Bib- 
liotheca  Indica'''  of  Leon  Pinelo. 
(g.)  15.  Geromino  or  Alonzo  Ribera.     He  was  settled  at  Lima,  where 

he  had  children. 
(g.)  16.  Francisco  Rodriquez  de  Villa-Fuerte^  the  first  to  cross  the 
line.     Afterwards  a  citizen  of  Cuzco,  having  been  present  at  the 
siege  by  Ynca  Manco,  and  at  the  battle  of  Las  Salinas.     Garci- 
lasso knew  him,  and  once  rode  with  him  from  Cuzco  to  Quispi- 
cancha,  when  he  recounted  many  reminiscences  of  his  stirring 
life.     He  was  still  living  at  Cuzco  in  1560,  a  rich  and  influential 
*  The  Governor  of  Panama  allowed  one  vessel  to  go,  under  the  com- 
mand of  the  Pilot  Ruiz,  with  positive  orders  to  return  in  six  months. 
Pizarro  sailed  in  her  from  the  isle  of  Gorgona,  and  came  to  the  gulf  of 
Guayaquil,  after  a  voyage  of  twenty  days.     He  landed  on  the  island  of 
Santa  Clara  or  Muerto,  and  then  stood  across  to  the  town  of  Tumbez. 
He  then  explored  the  Peruvian  coast  as  far  as  the  river  of  Santa.     See 
the  note  in  my  translation  of  Cieza  de  Leon.,  p.  420.     Pizarro  took  two 
Peruvians  from  Tumbez,  who  became  interpreters,  but  very  bad  ones, 
as  they  spoke  execrable  Spanish  and  worse  Quichua.     One  was  named 
Filipillo  by  the  Spaniards,  the  other  Martinillo. 
'  £400. 

12  PIZAREO    TN    SPAIN. 

account  to  his  Majesty  of  the  great  and  signal  services  he 
had  performed ;  in  reward  for  which  he  was  granted  the 
government  and  command  of  that  land/  and  the  habit  of 
Santiago  ;  certain  magisterial  powers,  and  aids  towards  the 
coast  were  given  by  his  Majesty  as  Emperor  and  King,  who 
ever  shows  favour  to  those  who  work  in  his  royal  service, 
as  he  always  has  done.  For  this  cause  others  have  been 
animated  with  zeal  to  spend  their  estates  in  his  royal  ser- 
vice, discovering  in  that  South  Sea,  and  over  all  the  ocean, 
lands  and  provinces  so  distant  from  these  kingdoms  of 

When  the  Adelantado  Francisco  Pizarro  was  nominated 
by  his  Majesty,  he  sailed  from  the  port  of  San  Lucar^  with 
a  fleet,^  and  with  a  fair  wind  and  without  accident,  arrived 
at  the  port  of  Nombre  de  Dios.  Thence  he  went,  with  his 
forces,  to  the  city  of  Panama,  where  he  encountered  many 
difficulties  and  obstructions  intended  to  prevent  him  from 
going  to  people  the  land  he  had  discovered,  according  to  his 
Majesty's  orders.  But  he  resolutely  continued  his  prepara- 
tions, and  sailed  from  Panama  with  as  many  people  as  he 
could  collect,  being  a  hundred  and  eighty  men,  with  thirty- 
seven  horses,  in  three  ships.^  His  voyage  was  so  success- 
ful that  in  thirteen  days  he  arrived  at  the  bay  of  San  Mateo, 
though,  when  they  began  this  enterprise,  they  could  never 

'  The  Capitulation  made  by  Francisco  Pizarro  with  Queen  Juana,  is 
dated  at  Toledo,  on  July  26th,  1529.  The  text  is  given  by  Quintana  in 
his  Vidas,  ■p.  176,  and  by  Prescott  in  an  Appendix,  ii,  p.  447.  The  chief 
right  of  discovery  and  conquest  of  the  country  for  two  hundred  leagues 
south  of  the  island  of  Santiago  or  Puna,  which  was  called  New  Castille, 
was  secured  to  Pizarro,  with  the  title  of  Governor  for  life.  Almagro 
was  made  Commander  of  Tumbez,  Ruiz  received  the  title  of  Grand 
Pilot  of  the  Southern  Ocean,  and  Candia  was  made  Captain  of  Artillery. 
Pizarro  received  the  habit  of  Santiago.  ^  In  January  1630. 

1  He  took  out  with  him  four  brothers:  Hernando,  the  eldest,  and  only 
legitimate  son  of  his  father;  Gonzalo  and  Juan,  like  Francisco  himself, 
illegitimate  sons;  and  Francisco  Martin  de  Alcantara,  a  son  of  his  mother 
but  not  of  his  father.  -  In  January  1531. 


reach  it  during  more  than  two  years.  There  he  landed  the 
people  and  horses,  and  they  marched  along  the  shore,  find- 
ing all  the  inhabitants  in  arms  against  them.  They  con- 
tinued their  march  until  they  reached  a  large  village  called 
Coaque,  which  they  entered,  for  the  inhabitants  had  not 
risen,  as  in  the  other  villages.  There  they  took  fifteen  thou- 
sand pesos^  de  oro,  fifteen  hundred  marcs'^  of  silver,  and  many 
emeralds  which  were  not  then  known  as,  nor  held  to  be, 
precious  stones.  Hence  the  Spaniards  obtained  them  from 
the  Indians  for  cloths  and  other  things.  In  this  village 
they  took  the  Cacique  or  Lord  of  the  place,  with  some 
of  his  people,  and  they  found  much  cloth  of  difi^erent  kinds, 
and  abundant  supplies,  sufficient  to  maintain  the  Spaniards 
for  three  or  four  years. 

The  Governor  despatched  the  three  ships  from  Coaque 
to  the  city  of  Panama  and  to  Nicaragua,  to  get  more  men 
and  horses,  in  order  to  secure  the  conquest  and  settling  of 
the  land.  The  Governor  remained  there  with  his  people, 
resting  for  some  days  until  two  of  the  ships  returned  from 
Panama  with  twenty-six  horsemen  and  thirty  foot  soldiers. 
On  their  arrival  the  Governor  set  out,  with  the  horse  and 
foot,  marching  along  the  sea  coast,  which  was  well  peopled, 
and  placing  all  the  villages  under  the  dominion  of  his 
Majesty ;  for  their  lords,  with  one  accord,  came  out  into  the 
roads  to  receive  the  Governor,  without  making  any  opposi- 
tion. The  Governor,  far  from  doing  them  any  harm  or 
showing  any  anger,  received  them  all  lovingly,  and  they 
were  taught  some  things  touching  our  holy  Catholic  Faith, 
by  the  monks  who  accompanied  the  expedition.  Thus  the 
Governor  advanced  with  the  Spaniards,  until  they  reached 
an  island  called  Puna,  to  which  the  Spaniards  gave  the 
name  of  Santiago.^     It  is  two  leagues  from  the  main  land ; 

*  A  peio  of  gold  was  worth  a  casteUano  or  about  eight  shillings. 

*  A  marc  was  eight  ounces. 

*  In  the  gulf  of  Guayaquil.    Temaux  Compans,  in  a  note,  makes  the 

14  PIZARRO    ON    THE    ISLE    OP    PUNA. 

and,  being  populous,  and  rich,  and  yielding  abundant  sup- 
plies, the  Governor  crossed  over  to  it  in  two  ships,  and  in 
balsas^  of  wood  which  the  Indians  make,  on  which  the 
horses  were  carried  over. 

The  Governor  was  received  on  this  island  by  the  Lord 
with  much  joy,  and  many  presents  of  provisions,  which  were 
brought  out  on  the  road,  together  with  musical  instruments 
that  the  natives  use  for  their  recreation.  This  island  is 
fifteen  leagues  round.  It  is  fertile  and  populous,  and  con- 
tains many  villages,  ruled  by  seven  chiefs,  one  of  whom  is 
lord  over  the  others.  This  chief  gave  a  quantity  of  gold 
and  silver  to  the  Governor  of  his  own  free  will,  and,  as  it 
was  winter,  the  Governor  and  his  people  rested  on  that 
island  ;  for  he  could  not  have  advanced  in  the  rains  without 
serious  detriment.  Several  of  those  who  were  sick  recovered 
before  the  rainy  season  was  over.  The  natural  inclination 
of  the  Indians  is  not  to  obey  or  serve  any  foreigner,  unless 
they  are  obliged  to  do  so  by  force.  This  Cacique  had  peace- 
fully lived  with  the  Governor,  and  had  become  a  vassal  of 
his  Majesty;  yet  it  became  known,  through  the  interpreters 
of  the  Governor,  that  he  had  assembled  all  his  warriors,  and 
that  for  many  days  they  had  been  employed  in  making  arms. 
This  was  also  observed  with  their  own  eyes  by  the  Spaniards, 
in  the  village  where  they  and  the  Cacique  were  lodged. 
Many  armed  Indians  were  found  in  the  house  of  the  Cacique 

extraordinary  mistake  of  turning  the  native  name  of  Puna  into  Pugna, 
which  he  translates  into  "  Fight",  and  identifying  it  with  the  island  of 
Gorgona.  Puna  is  three  hundred  and  seventy  miles  south  of  Gorgona, 
and  far  more  by  the  course  a  vessel  must  take  round  the  coast.  See  an 
account  of  the  conquest  of  the  island  of  Puna  by  the  Yncas,  in  my 
translation  of  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega,  ii,  p.  429. 

0  Zarate  thus  describes  these  balsas  (lib.  i,  cap.  vi,  p.  6) :  "  They  are 
made  of  long  light  poles  fastened  across  two  other  poles.  Those  on  ;he 
top  are  always  an  odd  number,  generally  five,  and  sometimes  seven  or 
nine :  the  centre  poles  being  longer  than  the  others,  where  the  rower 
sits.     Thus  the  shape  of  the  balsa  is  like  that  of  a  hand  stretched  out, 


and  in  the  other  houses,  waiting  until  all  the  islanders  were 
assembled  before  they  attacked  the  Christians  in  the  follow- 
ing night.  When  the  Governor  had  received  this  informa- 
tion from  his  secret  spies,  he  ordered  the  Cacique,  his  three 
sons,  and  other  principal  men  to  be  taken  prisoners,  and 
the  Spaniards  attacked  the  armed  Indians  and  killed  seve- 
ral, while  the  others  fled,  abandoning  the  village.  The 
house  of  the  Cacique  and  some  others  were  pillaged,  some 
gold  and  silver  and  much  cloth  being  found  in  them.  During 
that  night  very  careful  watch  was  kept  in  the  camp  of  the 
Christians,  their  number  being  sixty  horse  and  a  hundred 
foot.  Before  next  day  dawned  they  heard  warlike  cries, 
and  soon  a  great  number  of  Indians  was  seen  to  approach, 
all  the  men  being  armed  and  plajang  warlike  instruments. 
They  advanced  in  several  bodies,  and  attacked  the  Christian 
camp.  By  this  time  it  was  daylight,  and  the  Governor 
ordered  his  men  to  assault  the  enemy  with  vigour.  Some 
Christians  and  horses  were  wounded ;  but,  as  our  Lord 
favours  and  succours  those  who  are  engaged  in  his  service, 
the  Indians  were  defeated,  and  turned  their  backs.  The 
horse-soldiers  followed  them,  wounding  and  killing  several. 
The  Christians  returned  to  the  camp,  because  the  horses 
were  tired,  the  pursuit  having  continued  from  morning 
until  noon. 

On  a  following  day  the  Governor  sent  his  troops  in  detach- 
ments over  the  island  to  search  for  their  enemies,  and  make 
war  upon  them,  which  they  continued  to  do  during  tw^ity, 
days;  so  that  the  Indians  were  well  punished.  Three  prin- 
cipal men,  who  were  prisoners  with  the  chief,  were  accused 
by  him  of  having  advised  and  arranged  the  treason,  while 
he  himself  did  not  wish  to  join  it  but  was  unable  to  control 

with  the  length  of  the  fingers  diminishing  from  the  centre.  On  the 
top  some  boards  are  fixed,  to  prevent  the  men  from  getting  wet.  There 
are  balsas  which  will  hold  fifty  men.  They  are  navigated  with  a  sail 
and  oars." 


these   leaders.      The  Governor   executed  judgment   upon 
them,  burning  some,  and  beheading  the  others. 

By  reason  of  the  insurrection  and  treason  of  the  Cacique 
and  Indians  of  the  island  of  Santiago,  war  was  made  upon 
them  until  they  abandoned  their  island  and  crossed  over  to 
the  main  land.  But,  seeing  that  the  island  was  rich  and 
fertile,  the  Governor  set  the  Cacique  at  liberty  that  he  might 
gather  his  scattered  people  together  and  re-settle  the  island, 
so  that  it  might  not  be  ruined.  The  Cacique  was  content 
to  serve  his  Majesty  henceforward,  by  reason  of  the  kind 
treatment  he  received  in  prison.  The  Governor  then  de- 
parted with  as  many  Spaniards  and  horses  as  his  three  ships 
would  hold,  for  the  town  of  Tumbez,'''  leaving  behind  some 
troops  with  a  captain,  for  whom  the  ships  were  to  return.^ 
But,  in  order  that  the  passage  might  be  effected  more 
quickly,  the  Governor  caused  the  Cacique  to  provide  balsas, 
in  which  three  Christians  went  with  a  supply  of  cloths  to 
Tumbez.  In  three  days  the  ships  reached  the  coast  at 
Tumbez,  and  when  the  Governor  landed,  he  found  that  the 
inhabitants  were  in  arms.  He  learnt  from  some  captive 
Indians  that  the  people  had  risen  and  seized  the  Christians 
and  cloths  that  came  in  the  balsas.^  As  soon  as  the  people 
and  horses  were  landed,  the  Governor  ordered  the  ships  to 
return  for  those  who  were  left  on  the  island.  He  and  his 
troops  lodged  in  the  village  of  the  Cacique,  in  two  strong 
houses  built  like  a  fortress.  The  Governor  then  ordered 
the  Spaniards  to  explore  the  country,  and  to  ascend  a  river 

'  Two  vessels,  with  a  reinforcement  commanded  by  Hernando  de 
Soto,  arrived  while  Pizarro  was  on  the  island  of  Puna. 

8  This  was  Sebastian  de  Belalcazar,  the  future  conqueror  of  Quito, 
and  Governor  of  Popayan. 

"  There  were  four  balsas.  In  one  were  Francisco  Martin  de  Alcan- 
tara, Juan  Pizarro,  and  Alonzo  de  Mena;  in  another,  Hernando  de  Soto; 
in  the  third,  Alonzo  de  Toro ;  and  in  the  fourth,  Hurtado,  a  brother  of 
Alonzo  de  Toro,  and  a  soldier.  The  three  in  the  latter  were  seized  by 
the  Indians  and  murdered. — Herrera. 


whicli  flows  between  those  villages,,  tliat  they  might  get 
tidings  of  the  three  Christians  who  were  sent  in  the  balsas; 
in  the  hope  of  finding  them  before  they  were  killed  by  the 
Indians.  But^  although  the  Spaniards  used  much  diligence 
in  exploring  the  land  from  the  first  hour  that  they  came  on 
shore^  they  could  neither  hear  nor  see  anything  of  the  three 
Christians.  The  Spaniards  put  all  the  provisions  they  could 
collect  in  two  balsas,  and  they  captured  some  Indians,  from 
among  whom  the  Governor  sent  messengers  to  the  Cacique/ 
and  to  some  principal  chiefs,  requiring  them,  on  the  part 
of  his  Majesty,  to  make  peace  and  deliver  up  the  three 
Christians  alive,  without  having  injured  them  ;  in  which  case 
they  would  be  received  as  vassals  of  his  Majesty,  although 
they  had  been  transgressors.  If  they  refused,  he  threatened 
to  make  war  upon  them  with  fire  and  sword,  until  they  were 

Some  days  elapsed,  and  the  Indians  not  only  kept  away, 
but  showed  signs  of  pride  and  made  forts  on  the  other  side 
of  the  river,  which  had  increased  in  size  and  could  not  be 
forded.  They  invited  the  Spaniards  to  come  across,  and 
told  them  that  they  had  already  killed  their  three  com- 

As  soon  as  all  the  men  had  arrived,  who  were  left  on  the 
island,  the  Governor  ordered  a  great  raft  of  wood  to  be 
made,  for  the  easier  passage  of  the  river.  He  sent  forty 
horse  and  eighty  foot  across  with  a  captain,  and  they  con- 
tinued to  be  ferried  over  on  the  raft  from  morning  until  even- 
ing. The  captain  had  orders  to  make  war  upon  the  Indians, 
because  they  were  rebels  and  had  slain  the  Christians  ;  and, 
after  they  had  sufiered  such  punishment  as  their  offence 
deserved,  they  were  to  be  received  peacefully  in  accordance 
with  the  commands  of  his  Majesty.  So  the  captain  set  out 
with  his  troops,  and  after  he  had  crossed  the  river,  he  took 

"  The  name  of  the  Chief  of  Tumbez  was  Chillemasa,  according  to 
Hcrrera.     But  see  next  page. 


guides  witli  him,  and  marcted  right  towards  the  place  where 
the  Indians  were  encamped.  At  dawn  he  attacked  the 
camp  where  they  lodged,  and  continued  the  pursuit  all  that 
day,  killing  and  wounding  them,  and  making  prisoners  of  all 
he  could  overtake.  Towards  night  the  Christians  assembled 
at  a  village.  Next  morning  the  Spaniards  marched  in  de- 
tachments in  search  of  their  enemies,  and  they  again  re- 
ceived punishment.  When  the  captain  saw  that  the  harm 
they  had  received  was  sufficient,  he  sent  messengers  to  pro- 
pose terms  of  peace  to  the  chief.  The  chief  of  the  province, 
which  is  called  Quillimasa,  sent  one  of  his  principal  men 
back  with  the  messengers,  who  made  this  reply — that  "  by 
reason  of  the  great  fear  he  had  of  the  Spaniards  the  chief 
had  not  come  himself,  but  that  if  he  was  assured  that  he 
would  not  be  killed,  he  would  come  peacefully."  The  cap- 
tain answered  the  messenger  that  "he  would  not  be  received 
badly,  nor  would  he  be  injured,  that  he  might  come  without 
fear  as  the  Governor  would  receive  him  as  a  vassal  of  his 
Majesty,  and  would  pardon  the  fault  he  had  committed." 
With  this  assurance,  though  in  great  terror,  the  chief,  with 
some  principal  men,  came,  and  the  captain  received  them 
joyfully,  saying  that  "  no  harm  would  be  done  to  those  who 
came  peacefully,  though  they  had  been  in  rebellion ;  that  as 
he  had  come,  no  more  war  would  be  made ;  and  that  the 
people  might  return  to  their  villages."  Afterwards  he  or- 
dered the  supplies  he  had  found  to  be  taken  across  the 
river,  and  he,  with  his  Spaniards,  returned  to  the  place 
where  he  had  left  the  Governor,  taking  the  chief  and  the 
principal  Indians  with  him.  He  reported  what  had  taken 
place  to  the  Governor,  who  gave  thanks  to  our  Lord  for 
having  granted  a  victory,  without  any  Christian  being 
wounded.  He  then  told  them  to  seek  rest.  The  Governor 
asked  the  chief: — "Why  he,  who  had  been  so  well  treated, 
had  risen  and  killed  the  Christians  ;  when  many  of  his 
people  had  been  restored  to  him,  whom  the  Cacique  of  the 

TUMBEZ.  19 

Island  had  captured  f  and  when  the  captains  who  had  burnt 
his  villages  had  been  given  up  to  him  to  receive  punishment, 
in  the  belief  that  he  was  faithful,  and  would  be  grateful  for 
these  benefits  V  The  Cacique  answered — "  I  knew  that 
certain  of  my  principal  men  brought  the  three  Christians  in 
the  balsas,  and  killed  them,  but  I  had  no  concern  in  it, 
though  I  feared  that  the  blame  would  be  put  upon  me." 
The  Governor  replied — "  Let  those  principal  men  be  brought 
to  me,  and  send  the  people  back  to  their  villages."  The 
Cacique  then  sent  for  the  people  and  for  the  principal  men, 
and  said  that  he  could  not  see  those  who  had  killed  the 
Christians,  because  they  had  left  the  country.  After  the 
Governor  had  been  there  for  some  days,  he  saw  that  the 
Indian  murderers  could  not  be  secured,  and  that  the  town 
of  Tumbez  was  destroyed.  It  seemed  to  have  been  an  im- 
portant place,  judging  from  some  edifices  it  contained. 
Among  them  were  two  houses,  one  of  which  was  surrounded 
by  two  circuits  of  earthen  wall.  It  had  open  courts  and 
rooms,  and  doors  for  defence,  and  was  a  good  fortress 
against  Indians.  The  natives  say  that  these  edifices  were 
abandoned  by  reason  of  a  great  pestilence,  and  by  reason  of 
the  war  that  was  waged  by  the  Cacique  of  the  island.^  As 
there  were  no  Indians  in  this  district  except  those  who  were 
subject  to  the  above-mentioned  chief,  the  Governor  resolved 
to  continue  his  march  with  some  cavalry  and  foot  soldiers, 
in  search  of  another  more  populous  province,  with  a  view  to 
sending  people  to  settle  in  the  town  of  Tumbez.  So  he  set 
out,  leaving  a  Lieutenant  with  the  Christians  who  remained 
in  charge  of  the  stores  ;^  and  the  Cacique  remained  at  peace, 
assembling  the  people  in  the  villages. 

2  Pizarro  found  two  natives  of  Tumbez  in  the  island  of  Puna.  He 
had  set  them  at  liberty,  in  the  expectation  that  they  would  be  useful  to 
him  in  their  own  land. —  Gomara^  Hist,  de  las  Indias,  cap.  cxii. 

'  For  an  account  of  Tumbez  and  its  inhabitants,  see  my  translation 
of  Cieza  de  Leon.,  p.  212. 

*  The  Contador  Antonio  Navarro  and  the  Treasurer  Alonzo  Riquelme 
remained  behind  at  Tumbez. 


On  the  first  day  that  the  Governor  departed  from  Tumbez, 
which  was  the  16th  day  of  May,  1532,  he  arrived  at  a  small 
village,  and, on  the  third  day  he  reached  a  village  among 
hills,  and  the  Cacique,  who  was  Lord  of  that  village,  was 
called  Juan.     Here  they  rested  for  three  days,  and  in  three 
more  days  they  came  to  the  banks  of  a  river,  which  were 
well  peopled,  and  yielded  abundance  of  provisions  of  the 
country,  and  flocks  of  sheep.^     The  road  is  all  made  by 
hand,  broad  and  well  built,  and,  in  some  bad  places,  it  is 
paved.     Having  arrived  at  the  river,  which  is  called  Turi- 
carami,^  he  formed  his  camp  in  a  large  village  called  Pue- 
chio,7  and  all  the  chiefs  who  lived  on  the  lower  course  of  the 
river  came  to  the  Governor  to  make  their  peace,  while  the 
inhabitants   of  the   village   came  out  to  meet  him.      The 
Governor  received  them  with  much  love,  and  informed  them 
of  the  orders  of  his  Majesty  that  they  should  know  and  be 
obedient  to  the  church  and  to  his  Majesty.     When  they 
understood  what  was  said,  through  interpreters,  they  replied 
that  they  desired  to  be  his  vassals,  and  that  they  would  re- 
ceive the  Governor  with  the  solemnity  that  might  be  re- 
quired ;    so  they  served  him  and  brought  him  provisions. 
Before  reaching  this  place,  at  the  distance  of  a  flight  from  a 
cross-bow,  there  is  a  large  place  with  a  fortress  surrounded 
by  a  wall,  and  many  rooms  inside,  where  the   Christians 
lodged,  that  the  Indians  might  not  be  affronted.  On  this  occa- 
sion, as  on  all  others  when  the  Indians  submitted  peacefully, 
the    Governor   ordered^   under   severe    penalties,  '^Hhat  no 
harm  should  be  done  to  them  either  in  person  or  goods, 
that  none  of  their  provisions  should  be  taken,  beyond  those 
which  they  chose  to  give  for  the  sustenance  of  the  Christians, 
and  he  declared  that  those  who  acted  differently  should  be 

*  So  the  first  conquerors  called  the  llamas  and  alpacas. 
»  This  is  the  river  Chira. 

'  See  my  translation  of  Cieza  de  Leon,  p.  213.     He  calls  the  place 
Pocheos.     Garcilasso  de  la  Vega  has  Puchiu,  ii,  p.  424. 


punislied  ;"  for  every  day  the  Indians  brought  in  all  the 
supplies  that  were  wanted,  as  well  as  fodder  for  the  horses, 
and  they  did  all  the  service  that  was  required  of  them. 

The  Governor,  seeing  that  the  banks  of  that  river  were 
fertile  and  well  peopled,  ordered  search  to  be  made  in  the 
neighbourhood  for  a  well  sheltered  port,  and  a  very  good  one 
was  found  on  the  sea-coast,  near  the  valley ;  and  Caciques 
or  Lords  of  many  vassals  were  found,  in  positions  which 
were  convenient  for  them  to  come  and  do  service  on  the 
banks  of  the  river.  The  Governor  went  to  visit  all  these 
villages,  and  the  district  appeared  to  him  to  be  suitable  for 
a  Spanish  settlement.  In  order  to  comply  with  the  com- 
mands of  his  Majesty,  and  that  the  natives  might  come  to 
be  converted  and  to  receive  a  knowledge  of  our  Holy 
Catholic  Faith,  he  sent  a  messenger  to  the  Spaniards  who 
had  been  left  at  Tumbez,  ordering  them  to  come  that,  with 
the  consent  of  all,  a  settlement  might  be  formed  on  a  site 
most  convenient  for  his  Majesty's  service,  and  for  the  good 
of  the  natives.  After  he  had  sent  this  messenger,  it  oc- 
curred to  him  that  delay  might  arise  unless  a  person  went, 
of  whom  the  Caciques  and  Indians  of  Tumbez  were  in  awe, 
so  that  they  might  assist  in  the  march  of  the  Spaniards. 
So  he  sent  his  brother  Hernando  Pizarro,  Captain  General. 
Afterwards  the  Governor  learnt  that  certain  chiefs  in  the 
hills  would  not  submit,  although  they  had  received  the 
orders  of  his  Majesty,  so  he  sent  a  Captain  with  twenty-five 
horse  and  foot,  to  reduce  them  to  the  service  of  his  Majesty. 
Finding  that  they  had  abandoned  their  villages,  the  Captain 
sent  to  require  them  to  come  in  peacefully,  but  they  came 
prepared  for  war,  and  the  Captain  came  out  against  them. 
In  a  short  time  many  were  killed  and  wounded,  and  they 
were  defeated.  The  Captain  once  more  demanded  that  they 
should  submit,  threatening  that,  if  they  refused,  he  would 
destroy  them.  So  they  submitted,  and  the  Captain  received 
them,  and  leaving  all  that  province  at  peace,  he  returned  to 


the  place  where  the  Governor  remained^  bringing  the  chiefs 
with  him.  The  Governor  received  them  very  kindly,  and 
ordered  them  to  return  to  their  villages,  and  to  bring  back 
their  people.  The  Captain  said  that  he  had  found  mines 
of  fine  gold  in  the  hills  round  the  villages  of  these  chiefs, 
and  that  the  inhabitants  collected  it.  He  brought  speci- 
mens, and  added  that  the  mines  were  twenty  leagues  from 
that  town. 

The  Captain  who  went  to  Tumbez  for  the  people,  returned 
with  them  in  thirty  days.  Some  of  them  came  by  sea,  with 
the  stores,  in  a  ship,  in  a  barque,  and  in  balsas.  These 
ships  had  come  from  Panama  with  merchandise,  and  brought 
no  troops,  for  the  Captain  Diego  de  Almagro  remained 
there,  preparing  a  fleet,  in  which  to  come  and  form  a  settle- 
ment for  himself.  As  soon  as  the  Governor  heard  that  the 
ships  had  arrived  and  landed  the  stores,  he  set  out  from  the 
village  of  Puechio,  with  some  troops,  to  descend  the  river. 
On  reaching  a  place,  where  dwelt  a  chief  named  Lachira,  he 
found  certain  Christians  who  had  landed.  They  complamed 
to  the  Governor  that  the  chief  had  ill-treated  them,  and  that 
fear  had  prevented  them  from  sleeping  during  the  previous 
night,  because  they  saw  the  Indians  marching  about  under 

The  Governor  made  inquiries,  and  found  that  the  chief  of 
Lachira  and  his  principal  men,  with  another  chief,  named  Al- 
motaxe,^  had  formed  a  conspiracy  to  kill  the  Christians  on  thr 
very  day  that  the  Governor  arrived.  Having  considered 
the  information,  the  Governor  sent  secretly  to  have  the  chief 
Almotaxe  and  the  principal  men  seized,  while  he  himself 
apprehended  the  chief  of  Lachira  and  some  of  his  leading 
men,  who  confessed  their  crime.  Then  he  ordered  justice 
to  be  executed,  burning  the  Cacique  of  Almotaxe  and  his 
head    men,   some    Indians,   and    all   the  principal    men    of 

^  I  suspect  this  should  be  Amotape,  a  place  on  the  river  Chira,  where 
there  are  now  some  fine  cotton  estates. 


Lachira.  He  did  not  execute  justice  upon  the  chief  of 
Lachira,  because  his  fault  did  not  appear  to  be  so  great,  and 
because,  if  he  was  killed,  both  the  provinces  would  remain 
without  a  head,  and  would  be  lost.  He  was  told  that  in 
future  he  must  be  true,  and  that  the  first  treason  would  be 
his  ruin.  He  was  to  govern  all  his  own  people,  and  also 
those  of  Almotaxe,  until  a  boy,  the  heir  of  the  lordship  of 
Almotaxe,  reached  an  age  when  he  could  be  entrusted  with 
the  government. 

This  severity  filled  all  the  surrounding  country  with  fear, 
insomuch  that  a  confederacy  which  was  said  to  have  been 
formed  to  attack  the  Spaniards  was  dissolved;  and  from 
henceforth  the  Indians  served  better,  and  with  more  fear 
than  before.  Having  executed  this  justice,  and  collected 
the  people  and  stores  which  came  from  Tumbez,  the 
Governor  viewed  the  district,  in  concert  with  the  Reverend 
Father  Friar  Vicente  de  Valverde,  a  monk  of  the  order  of 
San  Domingo,  and  with  the  officers  of  his  Majesty.  In 
this  region  it  was  found  that  all  necessaries  for  a  place 
where  Spaniards  might  settle  were  combined,  that  the 
natives  were  able  to  work  without  being  overcome  with 
fatigue,  and  that  attention  could  be  given  to  their  conversion 
in  accordance  with  the  desire  of  his  Majesty.  The  Governor, 
with  the  concurrence  of  his  officers,  therefore,  established 
and  founded  a  town  in  the  name  of  his  Majesty.  Near  the 
banks  of  the  river,  and  six  leagues  from  the  sea  port,  there 
was  a  chief,  the  lord  of  a  village,  named  Tangarara,  to  which 
the  Spaniards  gave  the  name  of  San  Miguel.^  In  order  that 
the  ships  which  had  come  from  Panama  might  receive  no 
loss  by  delaying  their  return  voyage,  the  Governor,  with  the 
concurrence  of  the  officers  of  his  Majesty,  ordered  certain 
gold,  which  had  been  presented  by  these  chiefs  and  those  of 

^  At  first  the  city  was  built  at  Tangarara,  in  the  Chira  valley,  but 
the  site  was  abandoned  on  account  of  its  unhealthiness.  It  is  now  in 
the  valley  of  Piura.     See  my  translation  of  Cieza  de  Leon,  p.  213, 


Tumbez,  to  be  melted.     A  fiftli  was  set  apart  as  belonging 
to  his  Majesty.     The  rest^  belonging  to  the  company^  was 
borrowed  by  the  Governor  from  his  troops,  to  be  paid  with 
the  first  gold  they  should  obtain  ;  and  with  this  gold  the  fleet 
was  despatched,  the  freight  was  paid,  and  the  merchants 
sent  off  their  goods,  and  so  they  departed.     The  Governor 
sent  to  advise  the  Captain  Almagro^  his  comrade,  how  much 
God  and  his  Majesty  would  be  injured  if  he  attempted  to 
form  a  new  settlpment.     Having  despatched  the  ships,  the 
Governor  divided  the  land  amongst  those  who  settled  in  the 
new  town,  for,  without  aid  of  the  natives,  they  could  neither 
have  maintained  nor  peopled  it.     If  the  Caciques  had  been 
made  to    serve,  without   being  assigned    to   persons  who 
would  be  responsible,  the  natives  would  have  suffered  much 
injury ;  for  when  the  Spaniards  know  the  Indians  who  are 
assigned  to  them,  they  treat  them  well,  and  take  care  of 
them.     Influenced  by  these  considerations,  and  with  the 
approval  of  the  monk  and  of  officers,  who  thought  that  such 
a  measure  would  be  for  the  service  of  God  and  the  good  of 
the  natives,  the  Governor  assigned  the  Caciques  and  Indians 
to  the  settlers  in  this  town,  that  they  might  assist  in  their 
maintenance,  and  that  the  Christians  might  teach  them  our 
holy  Faith,  in  obedience  to  the  orders  of  his  Majesty  that 
measures  should  be  taken  which  were  best  for  the  service  of 
God,  of  himself,  and  for  the  good  of  the  country  and  of  the 
natives.    Alcaldes,  Regidores,  and  other  public  officers  were 
elected,  who  were  given  instructions  by  which  they  were  to 
be  guided. 

The  Governor  received  intelligence  that  the  way  to 
Chincha  and  Cuzco  passed  through  very  populous  districts, 
which  were  rich  and  fertile,  and  that  there  was  an  inhabited 
valley  called  Caxamalca,^  ten  or  twelve  days'  journey  from 
his   settlement,  where   Atabaliba^    resided,   who   was    the 

1  Cassa-marca ;  from  cassa  bdow  and  marca  a  village. 
*  Atahuallpa. 

THE    VALLEY    OF    PIURA.  25 

greatest  lord  among  these  natives,  wliom  they  all  obeyed, 
and  who  had  conquered  lands  far  distant  from  the  country 
of  his  birth.  When  he  came  to  the  province  of  Caxamalca, 
he  found  it  to  be  so  rich  and  pleasant  that  he  settled  there, 
and  continued  to  conquer  other  lands  from  thence.  This 
lord  is  held  in  so  much  dread  that  the  natives  of  the  valley 
are  not  so  reconciled  to  the  service  of  his  Majesty  as  would 
otherwise  be  the  case,  but  they  rather  favour  Atabaliba  and 
say  that  they  acknowledge  him  as  their  lord  and  no  other, 
and  that  a  small  detachment  from  his  army  would  sufl&ce  to 
kill  all  the  Christians.  For  the  Indians  excite  great  terror  by 
their  accustomed  cruelty.  The  Governor  resolved  to  march 
in  search  of  Atabaliba,  to  reduce  him  to  the  service  of  his 
Majesty,  and  to  pacify  the  surrounding  provinces.  For 
when  he  was  once  conquered  the  rest  would  soon  be  reduced 
to  submission. 

The  Governor  departed  from  the  city  of  San  Miguel,^  in 
search  of  Atabaliba,  on  the  24th  of  September,  1532,  and 
on  the  first  day  his  troops  crossed  the  river  on  two  rafts, 
the  horses  swimming.  That  night  he  slept  at  a  village  on 
the  other  side  of  the  river.  After  three  more  days  he  arrived 
at  the  valley  of  Piura,  and  came  to  a  fortress  belonging  to 
a  chief,  where  they  met  a  Captain  with  some  Spaniards, 
who  had  been  sent  to  subdue  that  chief,  in  order  to 
relieve  the  Chief  of  San  Miguel.  The  Governor  remained 
there  for  ten  days,  making  preparations  for  the  march.  On 
mustering  the  Christians  he  intended  to  take  with  him,  he 
found  he  had  sixty-seven  horse  and  one  hundred  and  ten 
foot  soldiers,  three  of  them  with  guns,  and  some  with  cross- 
bows. The  Lieutenant  in  charge  of  San  Miguel  wrote  to 
report  that  few  Christians  remained  there,  so  the  Governor 
proclaimed  that  "  those  who  wished  to  return  and  settle  in 
the  town  of  San  Miguel  would  have  Indians  assigned  to 

3  Antonio  Navarro,  the  Accountant,  was  left  in  command  at  San 
Miguel ;  and  the  Royal  Treasurer  Riquelme  remained  with  him. 

26  MISSION    OP    SOTO    TO    CAXAS. 

maintain  them^  like  the  other  settlers  who  remained  there, 
and  that  he  would  proceed  with  his  conquest  with  those 
that  were  left,  whether  they  were  few  or  many."  Five 
horsemen  and  four  foot  soldiers  returned;  so  that,  with 
these,  there  were  fifty-five  settlers,  besides  ten  or  twelve 
others  who  remained  by  their  own  wish,  without  citizenship. 
The  Governor  then  mustered  sixty-two  horsemen  and  one 
hundred  and  two  foot  soldiers.  He  ordered  that  arms 
should  be  prepared  for  those  who  had  none,  both  for  their 
persons  and  horses,  and  he  re-organised  the  cross-bow  men, 
completing  their  number  to  twenty,  and  appointing  a  captain 
to  take  charge  of  them. 

Having  made  all  necessary  arrangements,  he  set  out  with 
his  troops,  and,  after  marching  until  noon,  he  arrived  at  a 
large  court,  surrounded  by  walls,  belonging  to  a  chief  named 
Pabor.  The  Governor  and  his  troops  lodged  there.  He 
learnt  that  this  chief  had  been  ruined,  for  that  the  old  Cuzco, 
father  of  Atabaliba,  had  destroyed  twenty  villages  and  killed 
their  inhabitants.  But,  in  spite  of  this  injury,  the  chief  had 
many  vassals,  and  bordering  on  his  territory  was  that  of  his 
brother,  who  was  as  great  a  lord  as  himself.  These  natives 
submitted  peacefully,  and  were  assigned  to  the  city  of  San 
Miguel.  This  settlement,  and  that  of  Piura,  are  in  very 
fertile  level  valleys.  The  Governor  here  obtained  tidings 
of  the  neighbouring  chiefs,  and  of  the  road  to  Caxamalca, 
and  he  was  informed  that  further  on  there  was  a  great  town, 
called  Caxas,  in  which  there  was  a  garrison  of  Atabaliba, 
waiting  for  the  Christians,  in  case  they  should  come  that 
way.  This  being  known  to  the  Governor,  he  sent  a  Captain* 
secretly,  with  horse  and  foot,  to  the  town  of  Caxas,^  with 
orders  that,  if  the  enemy  wished  to  oppose  their  passage 
with  violence,  he  was  to  strive  to  inspire  them  with  peaceful 

*  This  was  Hernando  de  Soto. 

>  Across  the  Andes,  on  the  Marauon  watershed.  See  my  translation 
of  Cieza  de  Leon,  p.  209. 

SOTO    AT    CAXAS.  27 

feelings,  and  to  bring  them  into  the  service  of  his  Majesty. 
On  that  day  the  Captain  departed.  The  next  day  the 
Governor  set  out,  and  reached  a  town  called  Qaran,^  where 
he  waited  for  the  Captain  who  had  gone  to  Caxas.  The 
chief  of  the  town  brought  the  Governor  supplies  of  sheep 
and  other  things,  to  a  fortress  at  which  the  Governor  arrived 
at  noon.  Next  day  he  left  the  fortress  and  came  to  the 
town  of  (^aran,  where  he  ordered  his  camp  to  be  formed,  to 
wait  for  the  Captain  who  had  gone  to  Caxas.  After  five 
days  the  Captain  sent  a  messenger  to  the  Governor,  with 
news  that  he  had  succeeded.  The  Governor  presently 
replied  from  the  village  where  he  was  waiting,  that,  after  he 
had  completed  his  work,  he  should  join  him,  and,  on  the 
road,  visit  and  reduce  another  town  near  that  of  Caxas, 
called  Gicabamba;'^  and  that  it  was  reported  that  the  chief  of 
Zaran  was  lord  over  rich  villages,  and  of  a  fertile  valley, 
which  was  assigned  to  the  settlers  of  the  city  of  San  Miguel. 
During  the  eight  days  that  the  Governor  was  waiting  for 
the  Captain,  the  Spaniards  were  re-organised,  and  the  horses 
were  refreshed  for  the  coming  journey.  When  the  Captain 
returned  with  his  troops,  he  gave  an  account  to  the  Governor 
of  what  he  had  seen  in  those  villages.  He  said  that  it  had 
taken  him  two  days  and  one  night  to  reach  Caxas,  without 
resting,  except  for  meals.  Even  then  they  would  not  have 
arrived  (though  they  had  good  guides)  if  they  had  not  met 
some  spies  from  the  village,  some  of  whom  they  captured, 
and  from  whom  they  obtained  information.  Having  put  his 
men  in  order,  the  Captain  followed  the  road  until  he  reached 
the  village,  and  at  the  entrance  he  found  a  royal  building, 
where  there  were  traces  of  armed  men.  The  village  of 
Caxas  is  in  a  small  valley  surrounded  by  mountains.  The 
people  were  in  a  commotion,  but  the  Captain  pacified  them, 
and  gave  them  to  understand  that  he  came,  on  the  part 
of  the  Governor,  to  receive  their  submission  as  vassals  of 
*  Zaran,  still  in  the  Piura  valley.  '  Huanca-pampa. 


the  Emperor.  Then  a  chief  came  out  and  said  that  he  was 
in  the  service  of  Atabaliba^  receiving  tribute  from  these 
villages.  He  described  the  road  to  Caxamalca,  and  men- 
tioned the  intention  of  Atabaliba  to  visit  the  Christians. 
He  spoke  of  the  city  of  Cuzco,  thirty  days'  journey  from 
CaxaSj  which  is  a  league  round^  and  the  house  of  the  Cacique 
is  four  cross-bow  shots  in  length.  There  is  also  a  hall, 
where  is  the  dead  body  of  old  Cuzco/  the  floor  of  which  is 
plated  with  silver,  and  the  roof  and  walls  with  gold  and 
silver  interwoven.  He  added  that  it  was  a  year  since  the 
Cuzco,^  son  of  old  Cuzco,  lost  those  villages,  when  they 
were  taken  by  his  brother  Atabaliba,  who  rebelled  and  con- 
quered the  land,  exacting  great  tribute,  and  daily  perpetrat- 
ing cruelties.  For  they  not  only  have  to  give  their  goods 
as  tribute,  but  also  their  sons  and  daughters.  The  royal 
building  was  reported  to  belong  to  Atabaliba,  who,  a  few 
days  before,  had  gone  hence,  with  a  part  of  his  army.  They 
found  a  great  and  strong  building  in  that  town  of  Caxas, 
surrounded  by  a  mud  wall  with  doorways,  in  which  there 
were  many  women  spinning  and  weaving  cloth  for  the  army 
of  Atabaliba ;  and  there  were  no  men  with  them,  except  the 
porters  who  guarded  them.  At  the  entrance  of  the  village 
there  were  certain  Indians  hung  up  by  the  feet ;  and  this 
chief  stated  that  Atabaliba  had  ordered  them  to  be  killed, 
because  one  of  them  entered  the  house  of  the  women  to 
sleep  with  one ;  who,  with  all  the  porters  who  consented  to 
his  entering  the  house,  was  hanged. 

As  soon  as  this  Captain  had  pacified  the  village  of  Caxas, 
he  marched  to  Guacamba,^  which  is  distant  one  day's  journey, 
and  is  larger  than  Caxas,  containing  finer  edifices,  and  a 
fortress  built  entirely  of  cut  stones,  the  larger  stones  being 
of  five  or  six  palmos,  and  so  closely  joined  that  there  ap- 

8  Ynca  Huayna  Ccapac.  ®  Huascar  Ynca. 

^  Huanca-pampa,  on  a  river  of  the  same  name,  flowing  into  the 

THE    YNCA    ROAD.  29 

peared  to  be  no  mortar  between  them.  There  was  a  lofty- 
masonry  platform,  with  two  flights  of  stone  steps,  between 
two  buildings.  A  small  river  flows  through  this  town,  and 
by  that  of  Caxas,  which  supplies  them  with  water,  and  over 
which  they  have  bridges  with  very  good  pavements.  A 
broad  road,  made  by  hands,  connects  these  two  towns  ;  and 
the  same  road  traverses  all  that  land  from  Cuzco  to  Quito, 
a  distance  of  more  than  three  hundred  leagues.^  The  road 
is  level,  and  the  part  which  traverses  the  mountains  is  very 
well  made,  being  broad  enough  for  six  men  on  horseback  to 
ride  abreast*  By  the  side  of  the  road  flow  channels  of 
water  brought  from  a  distance,  at  which  the  travellers  can 
drink.  At  the  end  of  each  day's  journey  there  is  a  house, 
like  an  inn,  where  those  who  go  and  come,  can  lodge.  At 
the  entrance  to  this  road,  from  the  town  of  Caxas,  there 
was  a  house  at  the  head  of  a  bridge,  where  a  guard  was 
stationed  to  receive  transit  dues  in  kind,  from  those  who 
came  and  went ;  and  no  man  could  take  a  load  out  of  the 
town  without  paying  the  toll.  This  was  an  ancient  custom, 
and  Atabaliba  suspended  it,  in  so  far  as  it  affected  the  things 
that  were  brought  for  his  troops.  No  passenger  could  enter 
or  depart  with  a  load  by  any  other  road  than  that  on  which 
the  guard  was  stationed,  on  pain  of  death. 

He  also  said  that  he  found,  in  these  two  towns,  two  houses 
full  of  shoes,  cakes  of  salt,  a  food  like  albondigas/  and  other 

*  "In  the  long  day's  journey  from  the  syenitic  rocks  of  Zaulaca  to 
the  valley  of  San  Felipe  "(rich  in  fossils,  and  situated  at  the  foot  of  the 
icy  Paramo  of  Yamoca)  we  were  obliged  to  wade  through  the  Rio  de 
Guancabamba  (which  flows  into  the  Amazons)  no  less  than  twenty- 
seven  times,  on  account  of  the  windings  of  the  stream  ;  while  we  con- 
tinually saw  near  us,  running  in  a  straight  line  along  the  side  of  a  steep 
precipice,  the  remains  of  the  high  built  road  of  the  Incas,  with  its  Tam- 
bos."  {Aspects  of  Mature,  ii,  p.  277.)  Humboldt  further  mentions 
that  the  Guancabamba,  in  the  lower  part  of  its  course,  is  made  to  serve 
dB  a  route  for  a  swimming  post  to  Jaen  de  Bracamoros. 

'  Balls  of  forced  meat  chopped  small,  with  eggs  and  spice.    A  Spanish 


stores  for  the  use  of  the  troops  of  Atabaliba.  He  added 
that  these  towns  were  well  ruled,  and  that  the  people  lived 
in  an  orderly  manner.  A  principal  Indian  and  some  others 
came  with  the  Captain.  The  Captain  said  that  this  Indian 
had  come  with  presents  for  the  Governor.  This  messenger 
said  to  the  Governor  that  his  lord  Atabaliba  had  sent  him 
from  Caxamalca  to  bring  the  present,  which  consisted  of 
two  fountains  made  of  stone,  like  fortresses,  and  used  to 
drink  out  of,  and  two  loads  of  dried  geese,  skinned  and 
prepared  to  be  powdered  and  used  for  fumigating ;  for  such 
is  the  custom  of  the  lords  of  that  land.  The  messenger* 
told  the  Governor  that  he  had  been  instructed  to  say  that 
Atabaliba  desired  to  be  his  friend,  and  that  he  was  waiting 
to  receive  him  in  peace  at  Caxamalca.  The  Governor  re- 
ceived the  present,  and  spoke  to  the  messenger,  saying 
that  he  rejoiced  greatly  at  his  arrival,  being  a  messenger 
from  Atabaliba,  whom  he  desired  to  see  by  reason  of  the 
things  that  he  had  heard  of  him  ;  that,  as  he  knew  that 
Atabaliba  was  making  war  upon  his  enemies,  he  had  re- 
solved to  go  and  see  him,  and  be  his  friend  and  brother, 
aiding  him  in  his  conquests  with  the  Christians  who  accom- 
panied him.  He  ordered  that  food  should  be  given  to  the 
messenger,  and  to  those  who  came  with  him,  and  that  they 
should  have  all  that  they  needed  and  be  well  lodged  as  the 
ambassadors  of  so  great  a  lord.  After  they  were  rested,  he 
ordered  them  to  be  brought  before  him,  and  said  that  they 
were  to  do  as  they  pleased,  either  to  depart  at  once  or  to 
rest  for  another  day.    The  messenger  replied  that  he  desired 

dish.  Martinez  Molino,  the  celebrated  cook  of  Philip  III,  in  his  treatise 
on  cookery  published  at  Madrid  in  1617,  enumerates  a  great  variety  of 

*  This  was  Titu  Atauchi,  the  brother  of  Atahuallpa,  according  to 
Garcilasso.  (Pt.  ii,  lib.  i,  cap.  17.)  He  brought  many  other  presents: 
sheep,  deer,  birds,  maize,  dried  fruits,  honey,  pepper,  cloths,  vases  of 
gold  and  silver,  emeralds,  and  bracelets  called  chipana. 


to  return  with  the  answer  to  his  lord.  The  Governor  then 
said — "  Repeat  what  I  have  already  told  you,  that  I  will  not 
stop  at  any  village  on  the  road,  that  I  may  quickly  arrive 
and  see  your  lord/^  He  gave  the  messenger  a  shirt,  and 
other  things  from  Castillo,  to  take  with  him.  After  the  de- 
parture of  the  messenger,  the  Governor  rested  for  another 
two  days  because  the  troops  that  had  come  from  Caxas 
were  fatigued  with  their  journey.  In  this  interval  he  wrote 
to  the  citizens  of  San  Miguel  and  gave  them  an  account  of 
the  land  and  of  the  news  from  Atabaliba;  and  he  sent  them 
the  two  vases  in  the  form  of  fortresses,  and  cloth  of  the 
country  from  Caxas.  It  is  wonderful  how  highly  this  cloth 
is  prized  in  Spain  for  its  workmanship.  It  is  looked  upon 
more  as  silk  than  as  wool.^  The  cloths  are  enriched  with 
many  patterns  and  figures  in  beaten  gold,  very  well  em- 
broidered. As  soon  as  the  Governor  had  despatched  his 
messengers  to  the  town  of  San  Miguel,  he  set  out,  and 
marched  for  three  days  without  finding  a  village  or  any 
water,  except  at  one  small  spring  where  it  could  only  be 
got  at  with  difiiculty.^  At  the  end  of  three  days  he  arrived 
at  a  large  walled  enclosure  where  no  inhabitants  were  found. 
It  proved  to  belong  to  the  Lord  of  a  village  called  Copiz, 
in  an  adjacent  valley,  and  that  fortress  was  abandoned  be- 
cause there  was  no  water.  Next  morning  the  Governor 
started  very  early,  because  it  was  a  long  march  to  the  in- 
habited valley.  At  noon  he  reached  a  house  with  a  sur- 
rounding wall,  containing  very  good  lodgings,  where  some 
Indians  came  out  to  receive  him.  But  there  were  neither 
provisions  nor  water,  so  the  Governor  advanced  two  leagues 
further,  to  the  village  of  the  chief.  Having  arrived,  he 
ordered  that  the  troops  should  be  lodged  together,  in  a 
certain  part  of  the  village.     He  was  informed  by  the  prin- 

*  Made  from  the  soft  vicufia  fleeces. 

®  He  was  crossing  the  vast  sandy  desert  of  Sechura. 


cipal  Indian  of  the  place,  wliich  was  called  Motux,''  that  the 
chief  was  in  Caxamalca,  and  that  he  had  gone  there  with 
three  hundred  men  of  war.  The  Governor  found  there  a 
Captain  appointed  by  Atabaliba.  The  Spaniards  rested  at 
Motux  for  four  days,  and,  during  that  time,  the  Governor 
saw  some  portion  of  the  inhabited  country  belonging  to  the 
chief,  which  appeared  to  be  extensive,  and  to  include  a 
fertile  valley.  All  the  villages  between  this  place  and  the 
city  of  San  Miguel  are  in  valleys,  as  well  as  all  those  of 
which  he  had  received  information,  as  far  as  the  foot  of  the 
mountains  near  Caxamalca.  On  this  road  all  the  people 
have  the  same  manner  of  living.  The  women  wear  a  long 
robe  which  reaches  to  the  ground,  like  the  dresses  of 
women  in  Castille.  The  men  have  short  shirts.  These 
people  are  dirty.  They  eat  flesh  and  fish  all  raw,  and 
maize  boiled  and  toasted.  They  have  other  filthy  things 
in  the  way  of  sacrifices  and  mosques,^  which  they  hold  in 
veneration,  and  they  offer  up  to  them  the  best  of  all  that 
they  have.  Each  month  they  sacrifice  their  own  children, 
and  with  the  blood  they  anoint  the  faces  of  the  idols,  and 
the  doors  of  the  mosques.  They  do  this  on  the  sepulchres 
of  the  dead,  and  the  victims  who  are  sacrificed,  go  willingly 
to  their  deaths,  laughing,  dancing,  and  singing.  After  they 
have  drunk  well,  they  themselves  ask  that  their  heads  may 
be  cut  oS".  They  also  sacrifice  sheep.  The  mosques  are 
diSerent  from  the  other  houses.  They  are  surrounded  by 
very  well-built  walls,  in  the  highest  part  of  the  town.  In 
Tumbez  they  wear  the  same  clothes  and  perform  the  same 

'  This  is  a  misprint  for  Motupe,  a  rich  and  fertile  valley.  Lorente 
identifies  it  with  Motupe.  {Hist,  del  Peru.,  ii,  p.  120.)  Zarate  gives  the 
word  correctly  as  Motupe,  not  Motux.  (Zaraie,  lib.  ii,  cap.  iii,  p.  20.) 
It  is  the  Mutupi  of  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega,  ii,  p.  424. 

^  Xeres  always  gives  the  name  of  mosques  to  the  temples  of  the  Peru- 
vians. The  fathers  of  the  Spanish  conquerors  had  served  in  the  cam- 
paign of  Granada,  and  their  minds  were  full  of  the  things  relating  to 
the  Moorish  infidels. 

PASSAGE    or    THE    RrO    LECHE.  33 

sacrifices  as  in  these  villages.  They  sow  the  crops  in  the 
level  ground  on  the  banks  of  the  rivers^  distributing  water 
through  channels.  They  grow  much  maize,  and  other  seeds 
and  roots  which  they  eat.  In  that  land  there  is  little  rain. 
During  two  days  the  Governor  marched  through  well- 
peopled  valleys,^  sleeping  at  the  end  of  each  journey  in 
houses  surrounded  by  walls.  The  lords  of  the  villages  say 
that  the  old  Cuzco^  lodged  in  these  houses  wjien  he  travelled 
by  this  road.  The  people  of  the  country  received  the 
Governor  in  peace.  On  another  day  he  travelled  over  a  dry 
and  sandy  tract  until  he  reached  another  well-peopled  valley, 
through  which  a  great  and  rapid  river  flowed.^  The  river 
was  much  swollen,  so  the  Governor  passed  the  night  on  the 
hither  side,  and  ordered  a  Captain  to  swim  across  it,  with 
some  others  who  knew  how  to  swim,  and  to  occupy  the  vil- 
lages on  the  other  side,  thus  preventing  any  people  from 
disturbing  the  passage.  The  Captain  Hernando  Pizarro 
swam  across,  and  the  people  of  a  village  on  the  other  side 
received  him  in  peace,  and  lodged  him  in  a  walled  fortress. 
But  as  he  saw  that  all  the  Indians  of  the  villages  were  in 
arms,  though  a  few  had  been  friendly,  he  asked  them 
touching  Atabaliba,  and  whether  he  was  waiting  for  the 
Christians  with  pacific  or  warlike  intentions.  None  of  the 
Indians  wished  to  tell  the  truth,  by  reason  of  the  fear  they 
had  of  Atabaliba ;  until  one  of  the  principal  men  among 
them  was  taken  apart  and  tortured.  He  then  said  that 
Atabaliba  waited  with  hostile  intentions,  his  army  being  in 
three  detachments,  one  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains,  another 

^  The  valleys  of  the  rivers  of  Motupe  and  Leche. 

1  Xeres  never  seems  to  have  heard  the  word  Ynca.  He  calls  the 
Ynca  Huayna  Ccapac,  the  father  of  Atahuallpa  and  Huascar,  by  the 
name  of  "  Old  Cuzco"  throughout  ;  mistaking  the  name  of  the  capital 
city  for  the  name  of  the  sovereign.  He  also  calls  Huascar  "Young 
Cuzco".     Hernando  Pizarro  makes  the  same  mistake. 

2  This  was  the  valley  of  Cinto.  See  Cieza  de  Leon,  p.  240.  Lorente 
identifies  the  river  with  that  of  Leche. 


on  the  summit,  and  another  at  Caxamalca.     He  also  told 
them  that  Atabaliba  waited  in  great  pride,  saying  that  he 
would   kill   the    Christians,    whom   he   hated.      The    next 
morning  the  Captain  sent  this  news  to  the  Governor.    Then 
the  Governor  ordered  trees  to  be  cut  down  on  both  sides  of 
the  river,  on  which  the  troops  and  baggage  might  pass. 
Three  rafts  were  constructed,  on  which  the  men  continued 
to  cross  over  during  the  whole  day,  the  horses  swimming. 
In  all  this  the  Governor  worked  hard,  until  the  army  had 
crossed.     He  then  went  over,  and  lodged  in  the  fortress 
where  the  Captain  was.     He  sent  for  a  Chief,  from  whom 
he  learnt  that  Atabaliba  was  on  the  other  side  of  Caxamalca, 
in  Guamachuco,  with  many  warriors,  his   force  numbering 
fifty  thousand  men.     When  the  Governor  heard  of  so  large  a 
number,  believing  that  the  Chief  had  made  a  mistake  in  his 
account,  he  was  told  how  the  Indians  counted,  from  one  to 
ten,  from  ten  to  a  hundred,  from  ten  hundreds  making  a 
thousand ;  and  that  five  tens  of  thousands  were  the  numbers 
which  Atabaliba  had  with  him.     The  Chief  who  gave  the 
Governor  this  information  was  the  principal  Chief  among 
those  of  that  river.     He  said  that  when  Atabaliba  visited 
his  country  he  had  concealed  himself  from  fear  ;  and  when 
Atabaliba  could  not  find  him  in  his  village  he  killed,  out  of 
five  thousand  inhabitants,  as  many  as  four  thousand,  and 
took  six  hundred  women  and  six  hundred  boys  to  distribute 
them  among  his  soldiers.     The   Chief  of  that  village  and 
fortress  where  the  Governor  lodged,  was  called  Cinto,''  and 
he  was  then  with  Atabaliba. 

Here  the  Governor  and  his  troops  rested  during  four 
days,  and  on  the  day  before  he  departed,  he  spoke  with  a 
principal  Indian  of  the  province  of  San  Miguel,  and  said  to 
him  :  "  Are  you  bold  enough  to  go  to  Caxamalca  as  a  spy, 
and  to  bring  me  news  of  what  is  going  on  there  ?"    The 

»  The  valley  itself  was  called  Cinto.   Garcilasso  de  la  Vega  has  Cintu^ 
ii,  p.  424. 


Indian  answered  :  "  I  will  not  go  as  a  spy,  but  I  will  go  a3 
your  messenger  to  speak  with  Atabaliba,  and  I  will  learn 
whether  there  are  warriors  in  the  mountains,  and  the  inten- 
tions of  Atabaliba."  The  Governor  said  :  "  Go  as  you  desire, 
and  if  there  are  troops  in  the  mountains  (as  is  reported  here), 
send  me  word  by  one  of  the  Indians  whom  you  take  with 
you.  Speak  with  Atabaliba  and  his  people,  and  tell  him  of 
the  kind  treatment  that  I  and  the  Christians  show  to  the 
friendly  chiefs,  that  we  only  make  war  upon  those  who 
attack  us,  and  that  all  you  have  said  is  true,  and  according 
to  what  you  have  seen.  If  Atabaliba  wishes  to  be  friendly, 
tell  him  that  I  will  be  his  friend  and  brother,  and  will  favour 
and  help  him  in  his  war."  That  Indian  departed  on  the 
embassy,  while  the  Governor  continued  his  march  across 
those  valleys,  arriving  every  day  at  a  village  with  a  walled 
house  like  a  fortress.  After  three  days  he  reached  a  village 
at  the  foot  of  the  mountains,*  leaving  the  road  along  which 
he  had  hitherto  marched,  on  his  right  hand,  for  it  leads  by 
the  way  of  those  valleys  to  Chincha.  The  other  road  goes 
direct  to  Caxamalca.  The  road  to  Chincha  passed  through 
many  villages,  and  led  from  the  river  of  San  Miguel.  It 
was  paved,  and  bounded  on  each  side  by  a  wall.  Two  carts 
could  be  driven  abreast  upon  it.  From  Chincha  it  led  to 
Cuzco,  and,  in  many  parts  of  it,  rows  of  trees  were  planted 
on  either  side,  for  the  sake  of  their  shade  on  the  road. 
This  road  was  made  for  old  Cuzco,  when  he  visited  his  do- 
minions, and  those  houses,  surrounded  by  walls,  were  his 
lodgings.     Some  of  the  Christians  were  of  opinion  that  the 

*  Hernando  Pizarro  calls  this  place  La  Ramada.  It  is  in  the  valley 
of  the  river  Jequetepeque,  at  the  foot  of  the  Andes.  By  the  route  across 
the  Andes  followed  by  Pizarro,  the  new  railway  now  under  construction 
will  pass.  Its  terminus  on  the  coast  is  at  Pacasmayo,  and  it  is  taken  up 
the  valley  of  Jequetepeque,  by  San  Pedro,  Guadaloupe,  and  Magdalena, 
and  over  the  Andes,  to  Caxamarca.  From  Magdalena  another  road 
branches  off,  and  passes  down  the  valley  of  Chicama  to  Truxillo.  This 
was  the  route  taken  by  Lieutenant  Maw  in  1829. 

36  PIZARRO^S   APPEAL    TO    HIS    MEN. 

Governor  sliould  take  this  road  to  Chinclia,  because  there 
was  a  difficult  mountain  to  traverse  by  the  other  road  before 
reaching  Caxamalca,  in  which  the  soldiers  of  Atabaliba  were 
posted,  and  some  disaster  might  befall,  if  that  road  was 
taken.  The  Governor  answered  that  "  they  now  had  news 
of  Atabaliba,  and  that  they  had  been  marching  in  search 
of  him  ever  since  they  left  the  river  of  San  Miguel.  If  they 
turned  aside  now,  the  Indians  would  say  that  it  was  from 
fear,  and  they  would  become  more  proud  than  they  were 
before."  For  these  and  other  reasons  the  Governor  said 
that  he  would  not  turn  aside  from  his  intention  of  marching 
to  the  place  where  Atabaliba  was,  wherever  that  might  be. 
He  exhorted  all  his  men  to  make  up  their  minds  to  act  as 
he  hoped  they  would,  and  to  have  no  fear  of  the  great 
number  of  soldiers  in  the  army  of  Atabaliba,  for  though  the 
Christians  might  be  few,  yet  the  help  of  our  Lord  would  be 
sufficient  to  confound  their  enemies,  and  to  make  them 
come  to  a  knowledge  of  our  Holy  Catholic  Faith.  He  re- 
minded them  that  every  day  they  had  seen  our  Lord  work  a 
miracle  for  them  in  their  need,  and  he  assured  them  that 
He  would  be  with  them  still,  seeing  that  they  went  with  the 
good  intention  of  bringing  these  infidels  to  a  knowledge  of  the 
truth,  without  doing  harm  or  injury  to  any  except  those 
who  desired  to  show  opposition  and  who  appeared  in  arms. 

After  the  Governor  had  made  this  speech,  all  declared 
that  he  should  take  the  road  which  seemed  best  to  him,  and 
that  they  would  follow  cheerfully,  and  show  him  what  each 
man  could  do  when  the  time  came. 

Having  arrived  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains  they  rested 
for  a  day  to  arrange  the  order  for  the  ascent.  The  Gover- 
nor, after  taking  counsel  with  experienced  officers,  resolved 
to  leave  the  rear  guard  and  baggage,  taking  with  him  forty 
horse  and  sixty  foot.  He  entrusted  the  remainder  to  the 
care  of  a  Captain,  and  ordered  him  to  follow  with  much  cir- 
cumspection, telling  him  that  he  would  receive  instructions 

ASCENT    OF    THE    ANDES.  37 

as  to  what  lie  was  to  do.  Having  made  these  arrangements, 
the  Governor  commenced  the  ascent.  The  horsemen  led 
their  horses  up  until,  at  noon,  they  reached  a  pallisaded 
fort  on  the  top  of  a  hill,  in  a  nairow  part  of  the  road  where, 
with  few  Christians,  the  way  might  be  made  good  against 
a  great  army.  It  was  so  steep  that,  in  pljJces,  they  had  to 
ascend  by  steps,  and  there  was  no  other  place  but  the  road 
by  which  the  ascent  could  be  effected.  This  pass  was 
ascended  without  its  being  defended  by  anyone.  The  for- 
tress was  surrounded  by  stone  walls,  and  was  built  on  a  hill 
with  declivitous  rocks  on  all  sides.  Here  the  Governor 
stopped  to  rest  and  have  some  food.  The  cold  is  so  great 
on  these  mountains  that  some  of  the  horses,  accustomed  to 
the  warmth  of  the  valleys,  were  frost-bitten.  Thence  the 
Governor  went  to  sleep  at  a  village,  and  sent  a  messenger  to 
the  forces  in  his  rear,  with  the  news  that  they  might  safely 
advance  through  the  pass,  and  with  orders  that  they  were 
to  push  on,  so  as  to  pass  the  night  at  the  fortress.  The 
Governor  lodged  that  night  at  a  village,  in  a  strong  house 
surrounded  by  a  masonry  wall,  as  extensive  as  a  fort  of  Spain, 
with  its  doorways.  If  the  people  had  had  the  artists  and 
tools  of  Spain,  this  surrounding  wall  could  not  have  been 
better  built.  The  people  of  this  village  had  taken  up  arms, 
except  some  women  and  a  few  Indians.  The  Governor 
ordered  a  Captain  to  take  two  from  amongst  the  Indians, 
and  to  examine  each  separately  touching  the  affairs  of  that 
land,  asking  them  where  Atabaliba  was,  and  if  he  intended 
peace  or  war.  The  Captain  learnt  from  them  that  Ataba- 
liba had  reached  Caxamalca  three  days  before,  with  a  large 
force ;  but  they  knew  nothing  of  his  intentions.  They 
said,  however,  that  thay  had  always  heard  that  Atabaliba 
wished  to  have  peace  with  the  Christians.  The  people  of 
the  village  were  on  his  side.  Towards  sunset  one  of  the 
Indians  who  had  gone  with  the  messenger  arrived,  and  said 
that  he  had  been  sent  back  by  his  master  when  he  was  near 


Caxamalca,  because  he  had  encountered  two  messengers  of 
Atabaliba  who  were  coming  behind  him  and  would  arrive 
next  day.  He  reported  that  Atabahba  was  at  Caxamalca, 
and  that  there  were  no  armed  men  on  the  road.  The  Go- 
vernor sent  back  this  intelligence  to  the  Captain  in  charge 
of  the  baggage^  by  a  letter,  in  which  he  was  told  that  the 
Governor  would  make  but  a  short  march  next  day,  in  order 
that  the  Captain  might  join  him,  and  that  the  whole  force 
would  then  advance  together.  The  next  morning  the 
Governor  marched  with  his  troops,  still  ascending  the 
mountains,  and  stopped  on  a  plain  on  the  summit,  near 
some  springs  of  water,  to  wait  for  those  who  were  still  be- 
hind. The  Spaniards  rested  in  the  cotton  tents  they  brought 
with  them,  making  fires  to  protect  themselves  from  the  cold 
of  the  mountains.  For  on  the  plains  of  Castillo  it  is  not 
colder  than  on  these  heights,  which  are  clear  of  trees,  but 
covered  with  a  grass,^  like  short  esparto.^  There  are  a  few 
stunted  trees,  and  the  water  is  so  cold  that  it  cannot  be 
drunk  without  being  first  warmed.  After  the  Governor  had 
rested  here  for  a  short  time,  the  rear  guard  arrived,  and 
also  the  messengers  sent  by  Atabaliba,  who  brought  ten 
sheep.  Being  brought  before  the  Governoi',  and  having  made 
their  obeisances,  they  said  : — "  Atabaliba  has  sent  these 
sheep  for  the  Christians,  and  he  would  know  the  day  on  which 
they  will  arrive  at  Caxamalca,  that  he  may  send  out  pro- 
visions on  the  road.^^  The  Governor  received  them  well,  and 
said  that  he  rejoiced  at  their  arrival  with  a  message  from  his 
brother  Atabaliba,  and  that  he  would  come  as  quickly  as 
possible.  After  they  had  eaten  food,  and  had  some  rest, 
the  (jovernor  questioned  the  messengers  touching  the  affairs 
of  their  land,  and  respecting  the  wars  waged  by  Atabcliba. 
One  of  them  answered  that  Atabaliba  had  been  five  days  in 
Caxamalca,  waiting  for  the  Governor,  and  that  he  had  only 

*  This  grass  is  the  Stijya  Ychn.     It  grows  in  large  coarse  tnfts. 

*  Bsparto  is  feathei-  grass,  also  a  Stipa. 


a  few  troops  with  him,  the  rest  having  been  sent  to  make 
war  against  his  brother  CuzcoJ  The  Governor  then  asked 
what  had  taken  place  in  all  those  wars,  and  how  Atabaliba 
had  commenced  his  conquests.  The  Indian  answered  :— 
"  My  Lord  Atabaliba  is  the  son  of  old  Cuzco/  who  is  now 
dead,  but  who  once  ruled  over  all  these  lands.  He  left  to 
his  son  Atabaliba  the  dominion  over  a  great  province  called 
Quito ;  and  to  another  elder  son  he  left  all  the  other  lands 
and  the  principal  lordship,  and,  as  successor  to  the  sove- 
reignty, he  was  called  Cuzco,  like  his  father.  But,  not  con- 
tent with  the  sovereignty,  he  came  to  wage  war  on  his 
brother  Atabaliba,  who  sent  him  messages,  beseeching  him 
to  allow  him  to  enjoy  peacefully  the  inheritance  that  had 
been  left  him  by  his  father.  But  the  Cuzco  would  not,  and 
he  killed  his  heirs,  and  a  brother  of  both  of  them,  who  came 
with  the  message.  Seeing  this,  Atabaliba  came  against 
him  with  a  large  army,  as  far  as  a  province  called  Tumi- 
pomba,^  which  was  within  the  territory  of  his  brother;  and, 
because  the  people  resisted,  he  burnt  their  town  and  killed 
them  ail.  Thence  the  news  came  to  his  brother  that  he  had 
invaded  the  land,  and  was  advancing  against  him.  When 
the  Cuzco  heard  this,  he  fled  to  his  own  land,  and  Atabaliba 
marched  onwards,  conquering  the  lands  of  the  Cuzco,  with- 
out meeting  any  resistance,  because  the  people  had  heard 
of  the  punishment  he  had  inflicted  upon  Tumipomba.  He 
obtained  recruits  from  all  the  lands  he  conquered,  and  when 
he  arrived  at  Caxamalca,  the  place  appeared  to  be  in  a  fertile 
land,  so  he  rested  there  while  all  the  other  territory  of  his 
brother  was  subdued.  He  sent  a  captain  with  two  thousand 
men  against  the  city  where  his  brother  lived,  and  as  his 
brother  had  a  vast  army,  all  these  men  were  killed.     Ata- 

'  The  Ynca  Huascar.  ^  The  Ynca  Huayna  Ccapac. 

»  A  corruption  of  Tumi-pampa ;  a  place  in  the  kingdom  of  Quito. 
Huayna  Ccapac  built  a  magniticeut  palace  there,  which  was  his  favourite 

40  I'IZAERO'S    REPLY    TO    THE    ENVOY. 

baliba  then  sent  more  troops  under  two  captains,  and  in  two 
months  tidings  came  that  these  two  captains  had  gained  all 
the  lands  of  the  Cuzco,  had  arrived  at  his  city,  defeated  hia 
army,  taken  him  prisoner,  and  seized  much  gold  and  silver." 
The  Governor  said  to  the  messenger  : — "  I  rejoice  at  the 
tidings  you  have  given  me,  and  at  the  victory  of  your  Lord; 
for  his  brother,  not  content  with  what  he  had,  strove  to  re- 
duce under  his  yoke  the  Lord  who  had  received  his  inherit- 
ance from  his  father.  To  tlie  proud  it  happens  as  it  has 
done  to  this  Cuzco :  for  they  not  only  fail  to  get  what  they 
unjustly  grasp  at,  but  remain  with  the  loss  of  their  own 
property  and  freedom."  The  Governor,  believing  that  all  that 
this  Indian  had  told  him,  on  the  part  of  Atabaliba,  was  in- 
tended to  amaze  the  Christians,  and  make  them  understand 
his  power  and  skill,  also  said  to  the  messenger: — "I  well  be- 
lieve that  what  you  have  told  me  is  true,  because  Atabaliba 
is  a  great  Lord,  and  I  am  informed  that  he  is  a  good  soldier. 
Yet  I  would  have  you  to  know  that  my  Lord  the  Emperor, 
who  is  King  of  Spain  and  of  all  the  Indies  and  of  Tierra 
Firme,  and  Lord  over  all  the  World,  has  many  servants  who 
are  greater  Lords  than  Atabaliba,  and  his  captains  have 
fought  and  taken  much  greater  Lords  than  either  Atabaliba, 
his  brother,  or  his  father.  The  Emperor  has  sent  me  to 
these  lands  to  bring  the  inhabitants  to  a  knowledge  of  God, 
and,  in  his  service,  I  have  defeated  greater  Lords  than 
Atabaliba,  with  these  few  Christians  that  are  with  me  now. 
If  he  should  wish  for  my  friendship,  and  to  receive  me 
peacefully,  as  other  Lords  have  done,  I  shall  be  his  good 
friend,  and  I  will  assist  him  in  his  conquest,  leaving  him  in 
his  present  state  ;  for  I  go  through  these  lands  to  discover 
the  other  sea.  But  if  he  should  wish  for  war,  I  will  make 
war,  as  I  have  done  against  the  chief  of  the  island  of  San- 
tiago, and  against  the  chief  of  Tumbez,  and  against  all 
others  who  have  wished  to  have  war  with  me.  I  make  war 
upon  no  one,  nor  do  I  molest  any  one,  unless  war  is  made 
upon  me." 


When  the  messengers  heard  these  things,  they  were  at 
first  so  astounded  that  they  could  not  speak,  to  think  that 
so  few  Spaniards  could  have  performed  such  wonderful 
things.  After  a  time  they  expressed  a  wish  to  go  with  this 
reply  to  their  Lord,  and  to  tell  him  that  the  Christians 
would  come  quickly,  in  order  that  he  might  send  out  pro- 
visions on  the  road.  The  Governor  dismissed  them.  The 
next  morning  he  continued  the  march,  still  over  the  moun- 
tains, and  that  night  he  slept  at  some  villages  he  came  to, 
in  a  valley.  As  soon  as  the  Governor  arrived,  there  came 
the  chief  messenger,  whom  Atabaliba  had  first  sent  with 
the  present  of  the  fountains  like  fortresses,  and  who  came 
to  (^aran  by  way  of  Caxas.  The  Governor  was  very  glad  to 
see  him,  and  inquired  after  Atabaliba.  The  messenger 
answered  that  he  was  well,  and  that  he  had  sent  ten  sheep 
for  the  Christians.  He  spoke  very  freely,  and,  from  his  con- 
versation, he  seemed  to  be  an  intelligent  man. 

When  he  had  completed  his  speech,  the  Governor  asked 
the  interpreters  what  he  had  said.  They  answered  that  he  had 
repeated  the  same  as  had  been  said  by  the  other  messen- 
gers the  day  before;  but  that  he  had  added  many  arguments, 
praising  the  greatness  of  his  Lord  and  the  vast  power  of 
tis  army,  and  assuring  the  Governor  that  Atabaliba  would 
receive  him  in  peace,  and  that  he  desired  to  have  him  as  a 
friend  and  a  brother.  The  Governor  answered  with  fair 
words,  such  as  the  other  had  used.  This  ambassador  was 
served  as  a  Lord,  and  had  five  or  six  cups  of  fine  gold, 
from  which  he  drank,  and  he  gave  the  Spaniards  cldclia^ 
to  drink  out  of  them,  which  he  brought  with  him.  He  said 
that  he  desired  to  go  to  Caxamalca  with  the  Governor. 

Next  morning  the  Governor  started,  his  way  leading  over 
the  mountains  as  before,  and  he  reached  a  village  of  Ataba- 
liba, where  he  rested  for  one  day.    Next  day  the  messenger 

1  Fermented  liquor  made  from  maize.  The  correct  Quichua  word  is 


came  in  whom  the  Governor  had  sent  to  Atabaliba.  He 
was  one  of  the  principal  Indians  of  the  province  of  San 
Miguel.  When  he  saw  the  messenger  of  Atabaliba,  who 
was  present,  he  rushed  upon  him,  and  seized  hold  of  his 
ears,  pulling  them  fiercely  until  the  Governor  ordered  him 
to  let  go,  for  if  they  had  been  left  alone  mischief  would 
have  come  of  it.  The  Governor  said  to  him,  '^  Why  have 
you  done  this  to  the  messenger  of  my  brother  Atabaliba  1" 
He  answered,  "  This  is  a  great  rogue,  this  carrier  of  Ataba- 
hba.  He  comes  here  to  tell  lies,  pretending  to  be  a  great 
man.  Atabaliba  is  in  warlike  array  outside  Caxamalca  on' 
the  plain.  He  has  a  large  army,  and  I  found  the  town 
empty.  I  went  thence  to  the  camp,  and  saw  many  people 
and  flocks,  and  a  quantity  of  tents,  and  all  was  ready  for 
war.  They  wanted  to  kill  me,  only  it  was  said  that  if  I 
was  killed,  their  ambassadors,  who  are  here,  would  also  be 
put  to  death,  and  that  they  would  not  be  allowed  to  go 
until  I  returned.  They  would  give  me  no  food  without 
bartering.  I  asked  them  to  let  me  see  Atabaliba  and  de- 
liver my  message,  but  they  refused,  saying  that  he  was 
fasting,  and  could  not  speak  to  any  one.  An  uncle  of  his 
came  out  to  speak  to  me,  and  I  told  him  that  I  was  your 
messenger,  and  that  I  was  ready  to  tell  him  anything  he 
chose  to  ask.  He  inquired  of  me  what  sort  of  people  were 
the  Christians,  and  what  kind  of  arms  they  bore.  I  replied 
that  they  were  valiant  men  and  great  warriors,  that  they 
had  horses  which  ran  like  the  wiod,  and  that  those  who  rode 
them  carried  long  lances,  with  which  they  killed  as  many 
people  as  they  met,  overtaking  them  in  two  jumps,  while 
the  horses  killed  many  with  their  feet  and  mouths.  I  added 
that  the  Christians  who  marched  on  foot  were  very  alert, 
carrying  on  one  arm  a  shield  of  wood  with  which  they  de- 
fended themselves,  and  strong  tunics  quilted  with  cotton  ; 
that  they  had  very  sharp  swords  with  which  they  cut  a  man 
in  two  at  each  blow,  and  that  with  these  they  could  cut  all 


•  the  arms  used  by  the  Indians.  Others,  I  said,  carry  shngs 
with  which  they  shoot  from  afar,  and  at  every  shot  they 
kill  a  man.  Others  shoot  with  powder,  sending  forth  lumps 
of  powder,  which  kill  many  men.  They  answered  that  all 
this  was  nought,  that  the  Christians  were  few  in  number, 
that  the  horses  had  no  arms,  and  that  they  would  soon  kill 
them  with  their  lances.  I  replied  that  the  horses  had  thick 
skins  which  their  lances  could  not  penetrate.  They  then 
said  that  they  did  not  fear  the  two  shots  of  fire,  and  that 
the  Christians  only  had  two.  When  I  wished  to  depart, 
I  asked  them  to  let  me  see  Atabaliba,  as  his  messengers 
came  and  spoke  to  the  Governor,  who  was  better  than  he, 
but  they  would  not  let  me  see  him,  and  so  I  departed.  See 
then  if  I  have  not  good  reason  for  killing  this  man ;  for, 
being  a  carrier  of  Atabaliba  (as  they  have  told  me  that  he 
is),  he  speaks  with  you,  and  eats  at  your  table,  while  I,  who 
am  a  Chief,  was  not  allowed  to  speak  with  Atabaliba,  nor 
would  they  give  me  to  eat,  and  it  was  only  by  good  argu- 
ments that  they  were  induced  to  refrain  from,  killing  me." 
The  messenger  of  Atabaliba  replied  with  some  fear,  seeing 
that  the  old  Indian  had  spoken  so  boldly.  He  said,  "If 
there  were  no  people  in  the  town  of  Caxamalca,  it  was  to 
leave  the  houses  empty  for  the  reception  of  the  Christians, 
and  Atabaliba  is  in  the  field  because  such  is  his  custom 
after  he  has  commenced  a  war.  If  they  would  not  allow 
the  messenger  to  speak  to  him,  it  was  because  he  was  fast- 
ing, according  to  the  custom,  and  he  could  see  no  one  by 
reason  of  being  in  retirement,  at  which  time  he  speaks  to 
no  one.  No  one  dared  to  tell  him  that  the  messenger  was 
waiting,  but  if  he  had  known  it  he  would  have  made  him 
come  in,  and  would  have  given  him  food.'^  He  used  many 
other  ai'guments  to  show  that  the  intentions  of  Atabaliba 
were  friendly.  If  all  the  conversations  between  this  Indian 
and  the  Governor  were  written  down  in  full,  it  would  fill  a 
large  book  ;  so,  for  the  sake  of  brevity,  a  summary  of  them 


is  given.  The  Governor  said  that  he  well  believed  it  was 
as  the  Indian  stated,  and  that  he  had  no  less  confidence  in 
his  brother  Atabaliba.  He  continued  to  treat  the  man  as 
well  as  before,  rebuking  his  own  messenger,  and  telling 
the  ambassador  that  he  regretted  the  ill  treatment  he  had 
received  in  his  presence.  But  in  secret  he  looked  upon  it 
as  certain  that  what  his  own  messenger  had  told  him  was 
true,  by  reason  of  the  knowledge  he  had  of  the  cautious 
intrigues  of  the  Indians. 

Next  day  the  Governor  departed,  and  slept  on  a  plain, 
intending  to  reach  Caxamalca  at  noon  the  day  after,  as  they 
told  him  it  was  near.  Here  messengers  arrived  from  Ata- 
baliba, with  food  for  the  Christians.  Early  next  morning 
the  Governor  started,  with  his  troops  in  order  of  battle,  and 
marched  to  within  a  league  of  Caxamalca.  Here  he  waited 
for  his  rear  guard  to  join  him.  All  the  troops  got  their 
arms  ready,  and  the  Governor  formed  the  Spaniards,  horse 
and  foot,  three  deep,  to  enter  the  town.  In  this  order  the 
Governor  advanced,  sending  messengers  to  Atabaliba,  that 
he  might  come  and  meet  hira  at  the  town  of  Caxamalca. 
On  reaching  the  entrance  to  Caxamalca,  they  saw  the  camp 
of  Atabaliba  at  a  distance  of  a  league,  in  the  skirts  of  the 
mountains.  The  Governor  arrived  at  this  town  of  Caxa-I 
malca  on  Friday,  the  15th  of  November,  1532,  at  the  hour 
of  vespers.  In  the  middle  of  the  town  there  is  a  great  open 
space,^  surrounded  by  walls  and  houses.  The  Governor 
occupied  this  position,  and  sent  a  messenger  to  Atabaliba, 
to  announce  his  ai^ival,  to  arrange  a  meeting,  and  that  he 
mie'ht  show  him  where  to  lodo-e.  Meanwhile  he  ordered 
the  town  to  be  examined,  with  a  view  to  discovering  a 
stronger  position  where  he  might  pitch  the  camp.  He 
ordered  all  the  ti^oops  to  be  stationed  in  the  open  space,  and 
the  cavalry  to  remain  mounted,  until  it  was  seen  whether 
Atabaliba  would  come.  After  examining  the  town  it  was 
'  Hernando  Pizarro  says  that  it  was  triangular. 


found  that  there  was  no  better  position  in  the  neighbour- 
hood. This  town^  which  is  the  principal  place  in  the  valley, 
is  situated  on  the  skirts  of  a  mountain,  and  there  is  a  league 
of  open  plain  in  front  of  it.  Two  rivers  flow  through  the 
valley,  which  is  level,  and  well  peopled,  and  surrounded  by 
mountains.^  The  town  had  two  thousand  inhabitants.  At 
its  entrance  there  were  two  bridges,  because  two  rivers  flow 
past.  The  plaza  is  larger  than  any  in  Spain,  surrounded 
by  a  wall,  and  entered  by  two  doorways  which  open  upon 
the  streets  of  the  town.  The  houses  are  more  than  two 
hundred  paces  in  length,  and  very  well  built,  being  sur- 
rounded by  strong  walls,  three  times  the  height  of  a  man. 
The  roofs  are  covered  with  straw  and  wood,  resting  on  the 
walls.  The  interiors  are  divided  into  eight  rooms,  much 
better  built  than  any  we  had  seen  before.  Their  walls  are 
of  very  well  cut  stones,  and  each  lodging  is  surrounded  by 
its  masonry  wall  with  doorways,  and  has  its  fountain  of 
water  in  an  open  court,  conveyed  from  a  distance  by  pipes, 
for  the  supply  of  the  house.  In  front  of  the  plaza,  towards 
the  open  country,  a  stone  fortress  is  connected  with  it  by  a 
staircase  leading  from  the  square  to  the  fort.  Towards  the 
open  country  there  is  another  small  door,  with  a  narrow 
staircase,  all  within  the  outer  wall  of  the  plaza.  Above  the 
town,  on  the  mountain  side,  where  the  houses  commence, 
there  is  another  fort  on  a  hill,  the  greater  part  of  which  is 
hewn  out  of  the  rock.  This  is  larger  than  the  other,  and 
surrounded  by  three  walls,  rising  spirally.  They  are  of  a 
strength  such  as  had  not  before  been  seen  among  the  Indians. 
Between  the  mountain  and  the  great  open  space  there  is 
another  smaller  court,  entirely  surrounded  by  buildings,  in 

*  Humboldt  describes  the  fertile  valley  of  Caxamarca  as  of  an  oval 
shape,  covering  ninety-six  to  a  hundred  and  twelve  square  miles,  with  a 
small  river  winding  through  it.  The  soil  is  fertile,  and  the  plain  full  of 
cultivated  fields  and  gardens,  traversed  by  avenues  of  willows,  large 
flowered  daturas,  mimosas,  ^.nd  the  beautiful  quenuar  trees  (^Polylepia 

46  SOTO    SENT    TO    THE    CAMP    OF   ATAHCALLPA. 

whicli  there  were  many  women  for  the  service  of  Atabaliba.* 
Before  entering  this  city  there  is  a  bouse  built  in  a  court 
surrounded  by  walls.  In  the  court  there  is  a  grove  of  trees 
planted  by  hand.  They  say  that  this  is  the  house  of  the 
Sun,  for  in  each  village  they  build  their  mosques  to  the 
Sun.  There  are  many  other  mosques  in  this  town,  and  they 
hold  them  in  veneration  throughout  the  land.  When  they 
enter  them,  they  take  off  their  shoes  at  the  doors.  The 
people  of  all  the  villages  we  came  to  after  ascending  the 
mountains,  are  superior  to  those  we  left  behind.  Those  of 
the  mountains  are  clean  and  more  intelligent,  and  the  women 
are  very  modest.  The  women  wear  over  their  clothes 
highly  ornamented  girdles,  fastened  round  the  middle. 
Over  the  gown  they  wear  a  mantle  reaching  from  the  head 
to  half  down  the  legs,  which  is  like  the  mantilla  of  Spain. 
The  men  dress  in  shirts  without  sleeves,  and  outer  mantles. 
They  all  weave  wool  and  cotton  in  their  houses,  and  make 
the  cloth  they  require,  and  shoes  for  the  men,  of  wool  and 
cotton.  The  Governor  was  a  long  time  in  the  plaza  with  his 
men,  waiting  for  Atabaliba  either  to  come  or  to  assign  him 
a  lodging.  As  it  was  getting  late  he  sent  a  Captain^  with 
twenty  horse  to  speak  with  Atabaliba,  and  to  say  that  he 
should  come  and  confer  with  the  Governor.  The  Captain 
had  orders  to  preserve  peace,  and  to  pick  no  quarrel,  even 
if  his  men  were  provoked  ;  but  to  do  his  best  to  obtain  a 

*  Humboldt  states  that  the  palace  of  the  Ynca,  at  Cassu-marca,  was 
situated  on  a  hill  of  porphyry  which  had  originally  been  hollowed  at  the 
surface,  so  that  it  surrounds  the  principal  dwelling  almost  like  a  wall  or 
rampart.  A  State  prison  and  a  municipal  building  {Casa  del  Cahildo) 
have  been  erected  on  part  of  the  ruins.  The  ruins  consist  of  fine  cut 
blocks  of  stone,  two  or  three  feet  long,  and  placed  upon  each  other 
without  cement.  There  were  steps  cut  in  the  rock,  and  minor  buildings 
for  servants,  partly  of  cut  stones  with  sloped  roofs,  and  partly  of  bricks 
with  vaulted  recesses. 

Humboldt  made  acquaintance,  at  Cassa-marca,  with  a  family  de- 
scended from  Atahualpa,  through  females,  called  Astorpilco. 

»  This  was  Hernando  de  Soto. 


hearing  and  return  with  the  reply.  This  Captain  had  got 
half-way,  when  the  Governor  went  up  into  the  fort,  and  saw 
a  great  body  of  men  in  front  of  the  tents.  In  order  that  the 
Christians  who  had  gone  might  be  in  no  danger  if  they  were 
attacked,  and  be  able  to  retreat  from  among  the  Indians 
and  defend  themselves,  he  sent  another  Captain,  his  own 
brother,^  with  other  twenty  horsemen,  giving  him  orders 
not  to  permit  them  to  raise  any  shouts.  In  a  little  while  it 
began  to  rain  and  hail,  and  the  Governor  ordered  the 
Christians  to  take  shelter  in  the  rooms  of  the  palace,  and 
the  Captain  of  artillery,  with  his  guns,'''  to  station  himself 
and  his  men  in  the  fortress.  While  they  were  there,  an 
Indian  arrived  from  Atabaliba  to  tell  the  Governor  that  he 
might  lodge  where  he  pleased,  but  not  to  go  up  into  the  for- 
ti-ess  of  the  plaza  ;  and  to  excuse  himself  from  coming  on 
the  ground  that  he  was  fasting.  The  Governor  replied 
that  he  would  do  so,  and  that  he  had  sent  his  brother  to  ask 
for  an  interview,  as  he  had  a  great  desire  to  see  and  know 
one  of  whom  he  had  heard  so  much.  The  messenger  went 
back  with  this  answer,  and  the  Captain  Hernando  Pizarro 
returned  after  nightfall  with  the  Christians.  On  coming  be- 
fore the  Governor  they  said  that  they  had  found  a  bad  part 
of  the  road,  in  a  swamp,  which  had  previously  appeared  to 
be  paved.  For  there  is  a  broad  road  leading  from  the 
town,  made  with  earth  and  stone,  as  far  as  the  camp  of 
Atabaliba.  This  pavement  led  over  the  bad  places,  but 
they  had  broken  it  up  at  the  swamp  ;  so  that  the  Christians 
had  to  pass  by  another  way.  They  crossed  two  rivers 
before  reaching  the  camp.  In  front  of  it  there  is  a  river, 
which  the  Indians  cross  by  a  bridge,  and  here  is  the  camp, 
surrounded  by  water.  The  Captain  who  went  first  left  his 
men  on  this  side  the  river,  that  the  Indians  might  not  be 

•  Hernando  Pizarro. 

'  Ihe  captain  of  artillery  was  Pedro  de  Candia,  the  stout-hearted 
Greek.     Their  artillery  consisted  of  two  falconets. 


excited,  and  he  would  not  go  by  the  bridge,  fearing  for  his 
horse,  so  he  crossed  by  the  water,  taking  an  interpreter 
with  hira.  He  passed  through  a  squadron  of  infantry,  and 
came  to  the  lodging  of  Atabaliba,  where  there  were  four 
hundred  Indians  in  an  open  space,  who  appeared  to  be  a 
body  guard.  The  tyrant  was  at  the  door  of  his  lodging, 
sitting  on  a  low  stool,  with  many  Indians  before  him,  and 
women  at  his  feet,  who  almost  surrounded  hira.^  He  wore 
across  his  forehead  a  woollen  fringe,^  which  looked  like  silk, 
of  a  crimson  colour,  fastened  to  the  head  by  cords,  so  as  to 
come  down  to  the  eyes,  which  made  him  look  much  graver 
than  he  really  is.  His  eyes  were  cast  on  the  ground, 
without  looking  in  any  other  direction. 

When  the  Captain  came  before  him,  he  said,  through  the 
interpreter,  that  he  was  a  Captain  sent  by  the  Governor  to 
express  the  great  desire  he  had  to  see  him,  and  that  if  he 
would  come  the  Governor  would  greatly  rejoice  ;  and  the 
Captain  added  other  arguments.  He  gave  no  answer,  nor 
did  he  even  raise  his  eyes  to  look  at  the  Captain.  But  a 
Chief  replied  to  what  the  Captain  had  said.  At  this  junc- 
ture the  other  Captain  arrived  where  the  first  Captain  had 
left  his  men,  and,  asking  what  had  become  of  him,  they 
answered   that  he  had   gone   to  speak  with  the    Cacique. 

8  Don  Alonzo  Enriquez  says  that  Soto  forced  his  horse's  head  over  the 
head  of  Atahuallpa,  when  he  was  sitting  in  state,  so  that  the  breath 
from  the  horse's  nostrils  moved  the  fringe  on  the  Ynca's  forehead.  Soto 
was  astonished  that,  though  he  had  never  seen  a  horse  before,  he  was 
not  in  the  least  terrified,  nor  did  he  even  raise  his  head  (p.  92). 

'  The  llautu  or  Ynca  ensign  of  sovereignty.  It  is  thus  described  by 
Pedro  Pizarro : — "  Plaits  made  of  coloured  wool,  the  thickness  of  a 
middle  finger.  They  are  worn  in  the  manner  of  a  crown,  not  with 
points,  but  round,  and  the  width  of  a  man's  hand.  Over  the  forehead 
was  a  fringe  also  the  width  of  a  man's  hand,  or  a  little  more,  of  very 
fine  wool  cut  in  very  equal  lengths,  and  enlaced  half  way  down  with 
very  small  threads  of  gold,  very  skilfully.  This  wool  was  spun,  with 
the  lower  ends  untwisted,  being  those  which  fell  over  the  forehead. 
The  fringe  reached  to  the  eyebrows,  and  covered  all  the  forehead."' 


Leaving  his  people^  he  crossed  the  river,  and,  on  approach- 
ing near  to  where  Atabaliba  was  seated,  the  other  Captain 
said  :  "  This  is  a  brother  of  the  Governor,  who  comes  to  see 
you."  Then  Atabaliba  raised  his  eyes  and  said:  "Mal9a- 
biHca,^  a  Captain  that  I  have  on  the  river  of  Turicara,^  sent 
to  say  that  you  ill-treat  the  Caciques  and  put  them  in  chains, 
and  he  sent  me  a  collar  of  iron,  and  they  say  that  he  killed 
three  Christians  and  a  horse.  But  I  intend  to  go  to-morrow 
to  see  the  Governor,  and  to  be  a  friend  of  the  Christians, 
because  they  are  good."  Hernando  Pizarro  answered  : 
"  Mal9abiHca  is  a  scoundrel,  and  neither  he  nor  all  the 
Indians  of  that  river  together  could  kill  a  single  Christian. 
How  could  they  kill  either  a  Christian  or  a  horse,  seeing 
that  they  are  mere  chickens  ?  The  Governor  and  the 
Christians  do  not  ill-treat  the  Caciques  unless  they  are 
hostile,  and  those  who  are  friendly  are  treated  very  well. 
Those  who  make  war  are  attacked  until  they  are  destroyed. 
"When  you  see  what  the  Christians  do,  when  they  help  you 
in  your  wars  against  your  enemies,  you  will  know  that 
Mal^abiHca  told  lies  to  you."  Atabaliba  said  :  "  A  Cacique 
refuses  to  obey  me.  My  troops  will  go  with  yours,  and  you 
will  make  war  upon  him  ?"  Hernando  Pizarro  replied,  "  On 
account  of  one  Cacique,  it  is  not  necessary  that  you  should 
send  any  of  your  Indians,  though  you  have  so  large  a  force. 
Ten  Christians  on  horseback  will  suflfice  to  destroy  him." 

Atabaliba  laughed,  and  said  that  they  should  drink. 
The  Captains  excused  themselves  from  drinking  the  Indian 
liquor  by  saying  that  they  were  fasting ;  but  they  were  im- 
portuned by  him,  and  accepted.  Presently  women  came 
with  vases  of  gold  containing  chicha  of  maize.     When  Ata- 

'  A  chief  in  the  valley  of  Turicara  or  Chira. 

*  Or  Chira,  the  river  on  the  banks  of  which  San  Miguel  was  originally 
built.  Gomara  says  that  this  chief,  whom  he  calls  Maycabelica,  was 
Chief  of  Poechos,  on  the  river  Chira,  Hist,  de  las  Indias^  cap.  cxiii. 
Hernando  Pizarro  speaks  of  him  as  a  Chief  of  San  Miguel. 


baliba  saw  them  he  raised  his  eyes  to  them,  and  without 
saying  a  word  they  went  back  quickly,  and  returned  with 
other  larger  vases  of  gold,  and  from  these  he  gave  them  to 
drink.^  Afterwards  they  took  their  leave,  expecting  Ata- 
baliba  to  come  and  see  the  Governor  on  the  following 
morning.  His  camp  was  formed  on  the  skirts  of  a  small 
hill,  the  tents,  which  were  of  cotton,  extending  for  a  league, 
with  that  of  Atabaliba  in  the  centre.  All  the  men  were  on 
foot  outside  the  tents,  with  their  arms,  consisting  of  long 
lances  like  pikes,  stuck  into  the  ground.  There  seemed  to 
be  upwards  of  thirty  thousand  men  in  the  camp. 

When  the  Governor  heard  what  had  taken  place,  he 
ordered  that  a  good  watch  should  be  kept  that  night  in 
camp,  and  he  commanded  his  Captain-General  to  set  the 
guards,  and  to  see  that  the  rounds  were  gone  throughout 
the  night,  which  was  accordingly  done.  On  the  Saturday 
morning  a  messenger  from  Atabaliba  to  the  Governor  ar- 
rived and  said  :  "  My  lord  has  sent  me  to  tell  you  that  he 
wishes  to  come  and  see  you,  and  to  bring  his  men  armed  ; 
for  the  men  whom  you  sent  yesterday  were  armed  ;  and  he 
desires  you  to  send  a  Christian  with  whom  he  may  come." 
The  Governor  answered  :  "  Tell  your  lord  to  come  when  and 
how  he  pleases,  and  that,  in  what  way  soever  he  may  come, 
I  will  receive  him  as  a  friend  and  brother.  I  do  not  send 
him  a  Christian,  because  it  is  not  our  custom  so  to  send 
from  one  lord  to  another."*  The  messenger  set  out  with 
this  answer,  and,  as  soon  as  he  reached  the  camp,  the 
sentries  saw  that  the  Indians  were  in  motion.  In  a  short 
time  another  messenger  arrived,  and  said  to  the  Governor  : 

3  Titu  Atauchi,  the  brother  of  Atahuallpa,  told  Felipillo,  the  inter- 
preter, to  ask  the  Spaniards  to  drink.  Both  he,  and  another  brother 
named  Chuqui-huaman,  pledged  the  Spaniards  in  bumpers  of  chicha. 
The  girls  then  brought  many  kinds  of  fresh  and  dried  fruits,  and  one  of 
them,  named  Piilac  Sisa  Nusta,  addressed  the  guests,  and  begged  them 
to  partake  for  the  sake  of  friendship  {Garcilasso  de  la  Vega). 

*  Hernando  Pizarro  says  he  did  send  the  Christian. 


'^  Atabaliba  sends  me  to  say  that  he  has  no  wish  to  bring 
his  troops  armed,  and,  though  they  will  come  with  him, 
many  will  come  without  arms,  because  he  wishes  to  bring 
them  with  him  and  to  lodge  them  in  the  town  :  and  they 
are  to  prepare  a  lodging  in  the  plaza,  where  he  will  rest, 
which  is  the  house  known  as  the  house  of  the  serpent,  be- 
cause there  is  a  serpent  of  stone  within  it."  The  Governor 
repHed :  "  So  let  it  be,  and  I  pray  that  he  may  come 
quickly,  for  I  desire  to  see  him." 

Very  soon  they  saw  the  plain  full  of  men,  halting  at  in- 
tervals, to  wait  for  those  who  were  filing  out  of  the  camp. 
The  march  of  the  troops  along  the  road  continued  until  the 
afternoon  ;  and  they  came  in  separate  detachments.  Having 
passed  all  the  narrow  places  on  the  road,  they  reached  the 
ground  close  to  the  camp  of  the  Christians,  and  still  troops 
kept  issuing  from  the  camp  of  the  Indians.  Presently  the 
Governor  ordered  all  the  Spaniards  to  arm  themselves 
secretly  in  their  lodgings,  and  to  keep  the  horses  saddled 
and  bridled,  and  under  the  orders  of  three  captains,^  but 
none  were  to  show  themselves  in  the  open  space.  The 
Captain  of  the  artillery  was  ordered  to  have  his  guns  pointed 
towards  the  enemy  on  the  plain,  and,  when  the  time  came, 
to  fire.  Men  were  stationed  in  the  streets  leading  to  the 
open  space,  and,  taking  twenty  men  with  him,  the  Governor 
went  to  his  lodging.  These  had  the  duty  entrusted  to 
them  of  seizing  the  person  of  Atabaliba,  if  he  should  come 
cautiously  with  so  large  a  force  as  was  coming;  but  the 
Governor  ordered  that  ho  should  be  taken  alive.  All  the 
troops  had  orders  not  to  leave  their  quarters,  even  if  the 
enemy  should  enter  the  open  space,  until  they  should  hear 
the  guns  fired  ofi".  The  sentries  were  to  be  on  the  alert, 
and,  if  they  saw  that  the  enemy  intended  treachery,  they 

*  The  three  squadrons  of  horse,  each  numbering  twenty,  were  com- 
manded by  Hernando,  Gonzalo,  and  Juan  Pizarro,  with  the  Captains 
Hernando  de  Soto  and  Sebastian  de  Benalcazar  {Zarate,  lib.  ii,  cap.  v). 


were  to  give  the  signal ;  and  all  were  to  sally  out  of  the 
lodgings,  the  cavalry  mounted,  when  they  heard  the  cry  of 

Having  made  these  arrangements,  the  Governor  waited 
for  the  appearance  of  Atabaliba ;  but  no  Christian  was  in 
sight  except  the  sentry,  who  gave  notice  of  what  was 
passing  in  the  army  of  the  Indians.  The  Governor  and 
Captain-General  visited  the  quarters  of  the  Spaniards,  seeing 
that  they  were  ready  to  sally  forth  when  it  was  necessary, 
saying  to  them  all  that  they  must  be  of  good  courage,  and 
make  fortresses  of  their  hearts,  for  that  they  had  no  others, 
and  no  hope  but  in  God,  who  would  help  those  who  worked 
in  his  service,  even  in  their  greatest  need.  He  told  them  that 
though,  for  every  Christian,  there  were  five  hundred  Indians, 
yet  they  must  have  that  reliance  which  good  men  find  on 
such  occasions,  and  they  must  trust  that  God  would  fight  on 
their  side.  He  told  them  that,  at  the  moment  of  attacking, 
they  must  come  out  with  desperate  fury  and  break  through 
the  enemy,  taking  care  that  the  horses  do  not  hinder  each 
other.  These  and  similar  exhortations  were  made  by  the 
Governor  and  Captain-General  to  the  Christians,  to  raise 
their  spirits,  and  they  were  more  ready  to  come  forth  than  to 
remain  in  their  lodgings.  Each  man  was  ready  to  encounter 
a  hundred,  and  they  felt  very  little  fear  at  seeing  so  great  a 

When  the  Governor  saw  that  it  was  near  sunset,  and  that 
Atabaliba  did  not  move  from  the  place  to  which  he  had  re- 
paired, although  troops  still  kept  issuing  out  of  his  camp, 
he  sent  a  Spaniard  to  ask  him  to  come  into  the  square  to 
see  him  before  it  was  dark.  As  soon  as  the  messenger  came 
before  Atabaliba,  he  made  an  obeisance  to  him,  and  made 
signs  that  he  should  come  to  where  the  Governor  waited. 
Presently  he  and  his  troops  began  to  move,  and  the  Spaniard 
returned  and  reported  that  they  were  coming,  and  that  the 
men  in  front   carried   arms  concealed  under  their  clothes. 


which  were  strong  tunics  of  cotton,  beneath  which  were 
stones  and  bags  and  slings  ;  all  which  made  it  appear  that 
they  had  a  treacherous  design.  Soon  the  van  of  the  enemy 
began  to  enter  the  open  space.  First  came  a  squadron  of 
Indians  dressed  in  a  livery  of  different  colours,  like  a  chess 
board. ^  They  advanced,  removing  the  straws  from  the 
ground,  and  sweeping  the  road.  Next  came  three  squadrons 
in  different  dresses,  dancing  and  singing.  Then  came  a 
number  of  men  with  armour,  large  metal  plates,  and  crowns 
of  gold  and  silver.  Among  them  was  Atabaliba'''  in  a  litter 
lined  with  plumes  of  macaws'  feathers,  of  many  colours,  and 
adorned  with  plates  of  gold  and  silver.  Many  Indians  car- 
ried it  on  their  shoulders  on  high.^  Next  came  two  other 
litters  and  two  hammocks,  in  which  were  some  principal 
chiefs  ;  and  lastly,  several  squadrons  of  Indians  with  crowns 
of  gold  and  silver. 

As  soon  as  the  first  entered  the  open  space  they  moved 
aside  and  gave  space  to  the  others.  On  reaching  the  centre 
of  the  open  space,  Atabaliba  remained  in  his  litter  on  high, 
and  the  others  with  him,  while  his  troops  did  not  cease  to 
enter.^  A  captain  then  came  to  the  front  and,  ascending 
the  fortress  near  the  open  space,  where  the  artillery  was 
posted,  raised  his  lance  twice,  as  for  a  signal.^    Seeing  this, 

"  First  came  three  hundred  youths  with  bows  and  arrows,  singing, 
and  cleaning  the  road  with  their  hands.  Then  came  a  thousand  men 
with  pikes,  having  no  iron  tips,  but  with  the  points  hardened  in  the  fire. 
They  wore  a  livery  of  white  and  red  squares,  like  a  chess  board.  A 
third  squadron  then  entered,  with  hammers  of  copper  and  silver.  (Rela- 
cioii  del  Primer  Descubrimiento  MS.) 

'  He  wore  a  collar  of  large  emeralds.     {Relacion,  etc.) 

^  It  was  borne  by  eighty  chiefs,  all  dressed  in  a  very  rich  blue  livery. 
{Relacion^  etc.) 

*  Seeing  no  Spaniards,  he  said  to  his  captains  : — "  Where  are  these 
Christians,  that  they  do  not  appear?"  They  answered  : — "  Lord  !  the 
Christians  are  hidden,  for  they  are  afraid."    {Pedro  Pizarro). 

'  Hernando  Pizarro  does  not  appear  to  have  thought  that  any  signal 
was  intended.     He  says  that  a  few  Indians  went  into  the  fort,  and 


the  Governor  asked  the  Father  Friar  Vicente  if  he  wished 
to  go  and  speak  to  Atabaliba,  with  an  interpreter  ?  He 
repHed  that  he  did  wish  it,  and  he  advanced,  with  a  cross  in 
one  hand  and  the  Bible  in  the  other,-  and  going  amongst 
the  troops  up  to  the  place  where  Atabaliba  was,  thus  ad- 
dressed him  :  ''  I  am  a  Priest  of  God,  and  I  teach  Christians 
the  things  of  God,  and  in  like  manner  I  come  to  teach  you. 
What  I  teach  is  that  which  God  says  to  us  in  this  Book. 
Therefore,  on  the  part  of  God  and  of  the  Christians,  I  beseech 
you  to  be  their  friend,  for  such  is  God's  will,  and  it  will  be 
for  your  good.  Go  and  speak  to  the  Governor,  who  waits 
for  you.'^ 

Atabaliba  asked  for  the  Book,  that  he  might  look  at  it, 
and  the  Priest  gave  it  to  him  closed.  Atabaliba  did  not 
know  how  to  open  it,  and  the  Priest  was  extending  his  arm 
to  do  so,  when  Atabaliba,  in  great  anger,  gave  him  a  blow 
on  the  arm,  not  wishing  that  it  should  be  opened.  Then  he 
opened  it  himself,  and,  without  any  astonishment  at  the 
letters  and  paper,  as  had  been  shown  by  other  Indians,  he 
threw  it  away  from  him  five  or  six  paces,  and,  to  the  words 
which  the  monk  had  spoken  to  him  through  the  interpreter, 
he  answered  with  much  scorn,  saying:  "  I  know  well  how  you 
have  behaved  on  the  road,  how  you  have  treated  my  Chiefs, 
and  taken  the  cloth  from  my  storehouses."  The  Monk  re- 
plied :  "  The  Christians  have  not  done  this,  but  some 
Indians  took  the  cloth  without  the  knowledge  of  the 
Governor,  and  he  ordered  it  to  be  restored.^'  Atabaliba 
said  :  "  I  will  not  leave  this  place  until  they  bring  it  all  to 
me."  The  Monk  returned  with  this  reply  to  the  Governor. 
Atabaliba  stood  up  on  the  top  of  the  litter,  addressing  his 

planted  a  lance  with  a  banner  at  the  end,  by  way  of  taking  possession. 
It  was  probably  no  more  than  a  sign  of  the  royal  presence;  like  hoisting 
the  standard  at  Windsor. 

^  lie  was  accompanied  by  Hernando  de  Aldana,  and  an  interpreter 
named  Martinillo. 


troops  and  ordering  them  to  be  prepared.     The  Monk  told 
the  Governor  what  had  passed  between  him  and  Atabaliba, 
and  that  he  had  thrown  the   Scriptures   to   the   ground.^ 
Then  the  Governor  put  on  a  jacket  of  cotton^  took  his  sword 
and  dagger^  and,  with  the  Spaniards  who  were  with  him, 
entered  amongst  the  Indians  most  vaHantly ;  and,  with  only 
four  men  who  were  able  to  follow  him,  he  came  to  the  litter 
where  Atabaliba  was,  and  fearlessly  seized  him  by  the  arm, 
crying  out   Santiago.     Then  the   guns   were  fired   off,  the 
trumpets  were  sounded,  and  the  troops,  both  horse  and  foot, 
sallied  forth.*     On  seeing  the  horses  charge,  many  of  the 
Indians  who  were  in  the  open  space  fled,  and  such  was  the 
force  with  which  they  ran  that  they  broke  down  part  of  the 
wall  surrounding  it,  and  many  fell  over  each  other.     The 
horsemen  rode  them  down,  killing  and  wounding,  and  fol- 
lowing in  pursuit.     The  infantry  made  so  good  an  assault 
upon  those  that  remained  that  in  a  short  time  most  of  them 
were  put  to  the  sword.     The  Governor  still  held  Atabaliba 
by  the  arm,  not  being  able  to  pull  him  out  of  the  litter  be- 
cause he  was  raised  so  high.     Then  the   Spaniards  made 
such  a  slaughter  amongst  those  who  carried  the  litter  that 
they  fell  to  the  ground,  and,  if  the  Governor  had  not  pro- 
tected Atabaliba,  that  proud  man  would  there  have  paid  for 
all  the  cruelties  he  had  committed.     The  Governor,  in  pro- 
tecting  Atabaliba,  received  a  slight   wound  in   the  hand. 
During  the  whole  time  no  Indian  raised  his  arms  against  a 

'  The  Monk  said  : — "  See  you  not  what  is  happening  ?  Why  are  you 
treating  with  this  proud  dog,  when  the  plain  is  covered  with  Indians. 
Fall  upon  him.     I  absolve  you."    (Relacion,  etc.) 

Don  Alonzo  Enriquez  says: — "Then  the  rascally  friar,  who  was  cer- 
tainly a  peace-breaker,  began  to  call  with  a  loud  voice,  saying,  '  Chris- 
tians, I  call  upon  you  to  avenge  this  insult  to  the  faith  of  Jesus  Christ'." 
(P.  93). 

'*  "At  that  sound  we  all  came  out  as  one  man,  for  these  houses,  facing 
the  plaza,  had  many  doors,  so  it  seemed  as  if  they  had  been  built  for  this 
business".      {Relacion,  etc.) 


Spaniard.  So  great  was  the  terror  of  the  Indians  at  seeing 
the  Governor  force  his  way  through  them,  at  hearing  the 
fire  of  the  artillery,  and  beholding  the  charging  of  the 
horses,  a  thing  never  before  heard  of,  that  they  thought 
more  of  flying  to  save  their  lives  than  of  fighting.  All  those 
who  bore  the  litter  of  Atabaliba  appeared  to  be  principal 
chiefs.  They  were  all  killed,  as  well  as  those  who  were 
carried  in  the  other  litters  and  hammocks.  One  of  them 
was  the  page  of  Atabaliba,  and  a  great  lord,  and  the  others 
were  lords  of  many  vassals,  and  his  Councillors.  The  chief 
of  Caxamalca  was  also  killed,  and  others ;  but,  the  number 
being  very  great,  no  account  was  taken  of  them,  for  all  who 
came  in  attendance  on  Atabaliba  were  great  lords.  The 
Governor  went  to  his  lodging,  with  his  prisoner  Atabaliba, 
despoiled  of  his  robes,  which  the  Spaniards  had  torn  off  in 
pulling  hira  out  of  the  litter.  It  was  a  very  wonderful  thing 
to  see  so  great  a  lord  taken  prisoner  in  so  short  a  time,  who 
came  in  such  power.  The  Governor  presently  ordered 
native  clothes  to  be  brought,  and  when  Atabaliba  was 
dressed,  he  made  him  sit  near  him,  and  soothed  his  rage 
and  agitation  at  finding  himself  so  quickly  fallen  from  his 
high  estate.  Among  many  other  things,  the  Governor  said 
to  him  :  '^  Do  not  take  it  as  an  insult  that  you  have  been 
defeated  and  taken  prisoner,  for  with  the  Christians  who 
come  with  me,  though  so  few  in  number,  I  have  conquered 
greater  kingdoms  than  yours,  and  have  defeated  other  more 
powerful  lords  than  you,  imposing  upon  them  the  dominion 
of  the  Emperor,  whose  vassal  I  am,  and  who  is  King  of 
Spain  and  of  the  universal  world.  We  come  to  conquer  this 
land  by  his  command,  that  all  may  come  to  a  knowledge  of 
God,  and  of  His  Holy  Catholic  Faith  ;  and  by  reason  of  our 
good  object,  God,  the  Creator  of  heaven  and  earth  and  of  ull 
things  in  them,  permits  this,  in  order  that  you  may  know  him, 
and  come  out  from  the  bestial  and  diabolical  life  you  lead. 
It  is  for  this  reason  that  we,  being  so  few  in  number,  sub- 


jugate  that  vast  host.  When  you  have  seen  the  errors  in 
which  you  live,  you  will  understand  the  good  we  have  done 
you  by  coming  to  your  land  by  order  of  his  Majesty.  You 
should  consider  it  to  be  your  good  fortune  that  you  have 
not  been  defeated  by  a  cruel  people,  such  as  you  are  your- 
selves, who  grant  life  to  none.  We  treat  our  prisoners  and 
conquered  enemies  with  kindness,  and  only  make  war  on 
those  who  attack  us,  and,  being  able  to  destroy  them,  we 
refrain  from  doing  so,  but  rather  pardon  them.  When  I 
had  a  Chief,  the  lord  of  an  island,  my  prisoner,  I  set  him 
free  that  henceforth  he  might  be  loyal ;  and  I  did  the  same 
with  the  Chiefs  who  were  lords  of  Tumbez  and  Chilimasa, 
and  others  who,  being  in  my  power,  and  deserving  death,  I 
pardoned.  If  you  were  seized,  and  your  people  attacked 
and  killed,  it  was  because  you  came  against  us  with  so  great 
an  army,  having  sent  to  say  that  you  would  come  peacefully, 
and  because  you  threw  the  Book  to  the  ground  in  which  is 
written  the  words  of  God.  Therefore  our  Lord  permitted 
that  your  pride  should  be  brought  low,  and  that  no  Indian 
should  be  able  to  offend  a  Christian. '' 

After  the  Governor  had  delivered  this  discourse,  Atabaliba 
thus  replied :  "  I  was  deceived  by  my  Captains,  who  told  me 
to  think  lightly  of  the  Spaniards.  I  desired  to  come  peace- 
fully, but  they  prevented  me,  but  all  those  who  thus  advised 
me  are  now  dead.  I  have  now  seen  the  goodness  and  daring 
of  the  Spaniards,  and  that  Malgabilica  lied  in  all  the  news 
he  sent  me  touching  the  Christians." 

As  it  was  now  night,  and  the  Governor  saw  that  those 
who  had  gone  in  pursuit  of  the  Indians  were  not  returned, 
he  ordered  the  guns  to  be  fired  and  the  trumpets  to  be 
sounded  to  recall  them.  Soon  afterwards  they  returned  to  the 
camp  with  a  great  crowd  of  people  whom  they  had  taken  alive, 
numbering  more  than  three  thousand.  The  Governor  asked 
whether  they  were  all  well.  His  Captain-General,  who  went 
with   them,  answered   that    only  one   horse  had   a   slight 


wound.  The  Governor,  with  great  joy,  said:  '^1  give 
thanks  to  God  our  Lord,  and  we  all,  gentlemen,  ought  to 
give  thanks  for  the  great  miracle  we  have  wrought  this  day. 
In  truth  we  ought  to  believe  that,  without  His  special  help, 
we  could  not  have  entered  this  land,  how  much  less  have 
conquered  so  great  a  host.  God,  in  His  mercy,  sees  fit  to 
grant  these  favours,  and  we  should  give  Him  thanks  for 
His  great  works,  that  we  may  conquer  this  kingdom.  But, 
gentlemen,  you  must  be  fatigued,  and  I,  therefore,  desire 
you  to  retire  to  rest.  Although  we  have  the  victory,  we 
must  still  be  watchful.  The  enemy  is  defeated,  but  he  is 
cunning  and  experienced  in  war.  This  lord  too,  as  we 
know,  is  feared  and  obeyed,  and  they  will  try  every  artifice 
to  rescue  him.  This  night,  and  every  night,  there  must  be 
good  watch  kept,  and  the  rounds  must  be  gone  regularly, 
that  we  may  be  prepared  for  any  event.^^ 

So  they  went  to  supper,  and  the  Governor  caused  Ataba- 
liba  to  sit  at  the  table,  treating  him  well,  and  they  served 
him  in  the  same  way  as  the  Governor.  Orders  wei^e  then 
given  that  he  was  to  have  such  of  his  imprisoned  women  as 
he  desired  for  his  service,  to  wait  on  him,  and  a  good  bed 
was  prepared  for  him  in  the  same  chamber  where  the 
Governor  slept.  He  was  allowed  to  remain  unconfined,  and 
without  being  kept  in  prison,  but  was  watched  by  guards.^ 
The  battle  lasted  only  about  half  an  hour,  for  the  sun  had 
already  set  when  it  commenced.  If  the  night  had  not  come 
on,  few  out  of  the  thirty  thousand  men  that  came  would 
have  been  left.  It  is  the  opinion  of  some,  who  have  seen 
armies  in  the  field,  that  there  were  more  than  forty  thousand 
men.  In  the  square  and  on  the  plain  there  were  two  thou- 
sand killed,  besides  wounded.     A  wonderful  thing  was  ob- 

*  Don  Alonzo  Enriquez  tells  us  that,  in  twenty  days,  Atahuallpa  had 
learnt  to  speak  Spanish,  and  to  play  at  chess  and  cards.  He  also  asked 
men  to  write  down  words  that  he  knew,  and  got  others  to  read  them  ; 
and  thus  he  acquired  a  knowledge  of  the  art  of  writing.     (Pp.  92,  93). 


served  in  this  battle.  It  was  that  tlie  horses  which,  the  day 
before,  could  scarcely  move  for  the  cold,  were  able  to  charge 
with  such  fury  that  they  seemed  as  if  nothing  had  ever  ailed 
them.  The  Captain-General  set  the  watches  and  rounds  for 
that  night,  stationing  them  at  convenient  points.  Next 
morning  the  Governor  sent  a  Captain,  with  thirty  horse,  to 
scour  the  plain,  and  he  ordered  them  to  break  the  arms  of 
the  Indians.  The  troops  in  the  camp  made  the  imprisoned 
Indians  remove  the  dead  bodies  from  the  open  space.  The 
Captain,  with  his  horsemen,  collected  all  that  was  on  the 
plain  and  in  the  tents  of  Atabaliba,  and  returned  to  the 
camp  before  noon  with  a  troop  of  men,  women,  sheep,  gold, 
silver,  and  cloth.  Among  these  spoils  there  were  eighty 
thousand  jpesos,  seven  thousand  marcs  of  silver,  and  fourteen 
emeralds.  The  gold  and  silver  were  in  immense  pieces, 
great  and  small  plates  and  jars,  pots,  cups,  and  other  shapes. 
Atabaliba  said  that  all  this  was  the  furniture  of  his  service, 
and  that  the  Indians  who  fled  had  taken  a  great  deal  more 
away  with  them.  The  Governor  ordered  all  the  sheep  to  be 
set  free,  because  there  was  a  great  multitude,  and  they  en- 
cumbered the  camp.  The  Christians  could  kill  daily  as 
many  as  they  required.  The  Indians,  who  had  been  cap- 
tured the  night  before,  were  ordered  to  be  collected  in  the 
open  space,  that  the  Christians  might  take  those  they  re- 
quired for  their  service.  All  the  rest  were  ordered  to  be  set 
free,  and  to  return  to  their  homes,  for  they  belonged  to 
different  provinces,  and  Atabaliba  had  brought  them  away 
to  assist  in  his  wars,  and  for  the  service  of  his  army. 

Some  were  of  opinion  that  all  the  Indian  soldiers  should 
be  killed,  or,  at  least,  that  their  hands  should  be  cut  ofi". 
The  Governor  would  not  consent,  saying  that  it  would  not 
be  well  to  commit  so  great  a  cruelty,  for,  although  the  power 
of  Atabaliba  was  great,  and  he  was  able  to  collect  a  vast  multi- 
tude of  people,  yet  the  power  of  our  Lord  God  is,  beyond  all 
comparison,  greater  ;  and  He  grants  aid  to  His  own  through 

60  ARMS    OF   THE    INDIANS. 

His  infinite  goodness.  He  added  that  they  should  be  cer- 
tain that  He  who  had  delivered  them  from  the  danger  of  the 
previous  day  would  also  protect  them  hereafter^  seeing  that 
the  intentions  of  the  Christians  were  good  in  bringing  these 
infidel  barbarians  to  the  service  of  God  and  to  a  knowledge 
of  our  Holy  Catholic  Faith.  They  should  not  desire  to  be 
like  those  Indians^  in  their  cruelties  and  sacrifices,  which 
they  perpetrate  on  those  they  capture  in  war.  Those  who 
died  in  the  battle  were  more  than  enough ;  and  the  prisoners, 
who  had  been  brought  in  like  sheep  into  a  fold,  should  not 
be  killed  nor  injured.     They  were,  therefore,  set  free. 

In  this  town  of  Caxamalca,  certain  houses  were  found  full 
of  cloth,  packed  in  bales  which  reached  to  the  roof.  They 
say  that  it  was  a  depot  to  supply  the  army.  The  Christians 
took  what  they  required,  and  yet  the  house  remained  so  full 
that  what  was  taken  seemed  hardly  to  be  missed.  The  cloth 
was  the  best  that  had  been  seen  in  the  Indies.  The  greater 
part  of  it  is  of  very  fine  wool,  and  the  rest  of  cotton  of  rich 
colours,  beautifully  variegated.  The  arms  they  found,  with 
which  they  made  war,  and  their  manner  of  fighting  were  as 
follows.  In  the  van  of  their  armies  came  the  sling-men,  who 
hurled  pebbles  from  slings.  These  sling-men  carry  shields, 
which  they  make  from  narrow  boards  very  small.  They  also 
wear  jackets  of  quilted  cotton.  Next  came  men  armed  with 
sticks  having  large  knobs  at  one  end,  and  axes.  The  sticks 
are  a  hraga  and  a  half  in  length,  and  the  thickness  of  a  lance. 
The  knob  at  the  end  is  of  metal,  with  five  or  six  sharp  points, 
each  point  being  as  thick  as  a  man's  thumb.  They  use 
them  with  both  hands.  The  axes  were  the  same  size  or 
larger.  The  metal  blade  was  a  jpalmo  in  width,  like  a 
halberd.  Some  of  the  axes  and  clubs,  used  by  the  chiefs, 
were  of  gold  and  silver.  Behind  these  came  men  armed 
with  hurling  lances,  like  darts.  In  the  rear  were  pikemen 
with  lances  thirty  i^almos  in  length.  These  men  had  sleeves 
with  many  folds  of  cotton,  over  which  they  worked  the  lances. 


They  are  all  divided  into  squadrons,  with  their  banners  and 
captains  who  command  them,  with  as  much  order  as  Turks. 
Some  of  them  wear  great  head  pieces  of  wood,  with  many- 
folds  of  cotton,  reaching  to  the  eyes,  which  could  not  be 
stronger  if  they  were  of  iron.  The  men  who  composed  the 
army  of  Atabaliba  were  all  very  dexterous  and  experienced 
soldiers,  who  had  served  in  it  from  boys.  They  were  young 
and  stout,  and  only  a  thousand  of  them  sufficed  to  assault  a 
town  of  that  land,  though  it  were  garrisoned  with  twenty 
thousand  men. 

The  lodging  of  Atabaliba,  which  he  had  in  the  centre  of 
his  camp,  was  the  best  that  had  been  seen  in  the  Indies, 
though  it  was  small.  It  consisted  of  four  rooms,  with  a 
court  in  the  centre,  having  a  pond  supplied  with  water  by  a 
tube,  and  this  water  was  so  warm  that  one  could  not  bear  to 
put  a  hand  into  it.^  This  water  rises  out  of  an  adjacent 
mountain.  Another  tube  brought  cold  water,  and  the  two 
united  in  one  tube  on  the  road,  and  flowed,  mixed  together, 
by  a  single  tube,  into  the  pond.  When  they  wish  to  allow 
one  sort  to  flow  alone,  they  remove  the  tube  of  the  other. 
The  pond  is  large  and  paved  with  stone.  Outside  the  house, 
in  a  part  of  the  yard,  there  is  another  pond,  not  so  well 
made.  They  both  have  their  flights  of  stone  steps,  by 
which  to  go  down  and  bathe.  The  room  in  which  Ata- 
baliba stayed  during  the  day  was  a  corridor  looking  into  an 
orchard,  and  near  it  there  is  a  chamber  where  he  slept,  with 
a  window  looking  towards  the  court  and  the  pond.  The 
corridor  also  opens  on  the  court.  The  walls  were  plastered 
with  a  red  bitumen,  better  than  ochre,  which  shined  much, 
and  the  wood,  which  formed  the  eaves  of  the  house,  was  of 
the  same  colour.  Another  room  is  composed  of  four  vaults, 
like  bells,  united  into  one.     This  is  plastered  with  lime,  as 

®  Humboldt  mentions  the  columns  of  smoke,  seen  at  a  distance,  rising 
from  the  warm  springs  of  Pultamarca,  which  are  called  the  "  Baths  of 
the  Ynca".  The  temperature  of  these  sulphur  springs  was  found  to  be 
156  degs.  2  min.  Fahr. 


white  as  snow.    The  other  two  are  offices.    A  river  flows  in 
front  of  this  palace.''' 

Now  that  an  account  has  been  given  of  the  victory  of  the 
Christians  and  the  capture  of  Atabaliba,  and  of  the  ordering 
of  his  camp  and  army,  I  will  proceed  to  say  something  con- 
cerning the  father  of  this  Atabaliba,  and  how  he  was  made 
lord,  besides  other  things  relating  to  his  grandeur,  as  they 
were  described  to  the  Governor  by  Atabaliba  himself.  The 
father  of  this  Atabaliba  was  called  the  Cuzco,^  and  he  ruled 
over  all  that  land,  for  an  extent  of  more  than  three  hundred 
leagues,  in  which  the  people  obeyed  him  and  paid  him 
tribute.  He  was  a  native  of  a  province  called  Quito  -^  but, 
as  he  found  the  land,  where  he  was  encamped,  to  be  pleasant, 
fertile,  and  rich,  he  settled  there,  and  gave  the  name  to  a  great 
city  where  he  lived,  which  was  called  the  city  of  the  Cuzco.^ 
He  was  so  feared  and  obeyed  that  they  almost  looked  upon 
him  as  their  god,  and  his  image  was  set  up  in  many  towns. 
He  had  a  hundred  sons  and  daughters,  most  of  them  being 
still  alive.  It  is  eight  years  since  he  died,  and  he  left  as  his 
heir  a  son  of  the  same  name  as  his  own.  He  was  a  son  of  his 
legitimate  wife.  They  call  the  principal  wife,  who  is  most 
loved  by  the  husband,  legitimate.^  This  son  was  older  than 
Atabaliba.  The  old  Cuzco  separated  the  province  of  Quito 
from  the  rest  of  the  kingdom,  and  left  it  to  Atabaliba.  The 
body  of  the  Cuzco  is  in  the  province  of  Quito,  where  he  died, 
and  his  head  was  conveyed  to  the  city  of  Cuzco,  where  they 
hold  it  in  great  veneration,  adorning  it  with  gold  and  silver.^ 

'  Some  slight  remains  of  this  palace  were  visible  in  Humboldt's  time. 

*  The  Ynca  Huayna  Ccapac. 

"  This  is  a  mistake.  It  was  Atahuallpa,  not  his  father,  who  was  a 
native  of  Quito. 

^  Xeres  here  makes  a  most  extraordinary  blunder,  confusing  the  name 
of  the  city  with  that  of  the  Ynca. 

'^  Another  blunder.  The  legitimate  wife  was  the  sister,  or  at  least 
the  first  cousin  of  the  Ynca,  of  pure  Ynca  descent  on  both  sides. 

'  Another  blunder.   The  body  and  head  of  Huayna  Ccapac  were  con- 

RICHES    OP    THE    YNCAS.  63 

The  house  in  which  it  is  kept  is  all  plated  with  gold  and 
silver,  the  one  metal  interwoven  with  the  other.  In  this 
city  there  are  twenty  other  houses  with  walls  covered  with 
thin  gold  leaf,  both  within  and  without.  This  city  contains 
very  rich  edifices.  In  it  the  Cuzco  had  his  treasury^  con- 
sisting of  three  chambers  full  of  pieces  of  gold,  five  full  of 
silver,  and  one  hundred  thousand  lumps  of  gold  taken  from 
the  mines,  each  lump  weighing  fifty  castellanos.  This  has 
been  tribute  from  the  lands  that  have  been  subjugated. 
Beyond  this  city  there  is  another  called  Collao,  where  there 
is  a  river  containing  much  gold.*  Ten  days'  journey  from 
this  province  of  Caxamalca,  in  another  province  called 
Guaneso,^  there  is  another  river  as  rich  as  the  one  before 
mentioned.  In  all  these  provinces  there  are  many  mines  of 
gold  and  silver.  They  get  the  silver  out  of  the  mountains 
with  little  trouble,  one  Indian  getting  five  or  six  marcs  in  a 
single  day.  They  find  it  with  lead,  tin,  and  sulphur,  and 
afterwards  they  purify  it.  They  get  it  out  by  burning  the 
hill,  and,  as  the  sulphur  stone  burns,  the  silver  falls  in 
lumps.  The  distance  from  here  to  the  city  of  Cuzco  is 
forty  days^  journey  of  a  laden  Indian,  and  the  country  is 
well  peopled.  Chincha  is  a  populous  district,  half-way.® 
Throughout  the  land  there  are  many  flocks  of  sheep,  and 
many  are  wild  because  they  cannot  maintain  as  many  as 
they  breed.  Among  the  Spaniards  who  accompany  the 
Governor  they  kill  one  hundred  and  fifty  every  day,  and  yet 

veyed  together  to  Cuzco ;  though  he  died  at  Tumi-pampa.  The  body 
■was  discovered  by  the  Spaniards  and  taken  to  Lima.  See  the  account 
in  Oarcilasso,  i,  p.  273. 

*  The  Collao  is  the  name  of  the  region  drained  by  streams  flowing  into 
lake  Titicaca.  The  river,  containing  gold,  is  of  course  in  Caravaya,  be- 
yond the  eastern  Cordillera. 

*  Probably  Huanuco,  and  the  river  Huallaga. 

«  They  seem  often  to  have  heard  of  Chincha.  It  is  a  valley  on  the 
coast.  But  Xeres  confuses  it  vs^ith  one  of  the  four  great  divisions  of  the 
Ynca  empire,  called  Chincha-suyu,  which  includes  Cassamarca. 


there  would  be  no  scarcity  if  they  remained  in  this  valley 
throughout  the  year.  The  Indians  usually  eat  them  in  all 
parts  of  the  land. 

Atabaliba  also  said  that  after  the  death  of  his  father  he 
and  his  brother  were  at  peace  for  seven  years,  each  one  in 
the  land  which  their  father  had  left  them.  But  a  little  more 
than  a  year  ago  his  brother  rose  against  him  with  the  design 
of  depriving  him  of  his  government.  Afterwards  Atabaliba 
sent  to  beg  him  not  to  make  war,  but  to  be  content  with 
what  his  father  had  left  him,  but  the  Cuzco  was  not  satisfied 
with  this.  Then  Atabaliba  departed  from  his  land,  which 
is  called  Quito,  with  all  the  soldiers  he  could  collect,  and 
came  to  Tomepomba,'''  where  he  fought  a  battle  with  his 
brother.  In  this  encounter  Atabaliba  and  his  troops  killed 
more  than  a  thousand  of  the  men  of  Cuzco,  and  made  him 
take  to  flight.  He  also  slew  all  the  people  in  Tomepomba 
because  they  attempted  to  defend  the  place;  and  he  in- 
tended to  destroy  all  the  villages  in  the  district,  but  he  re- 
frained because  he  wished  to  pursue  his  brother.  The 
Cuzco  fled  to  his  own  land,  and  Atabaliba  advanced,  con- 
quering the  provinces,  while  all  the  cities,  remembering  the 
fate  of  Tomepomba,  voluntarily  submitted.  It  is  six  months 
since  Atabaliba  sent  two  of  his  attendants,  very  valiant  men, 
the  one  called  Quisquis  and  the  other  Chaliachin,^  who  ad- 
vanced with  forty  thousand  men  against  the  city  of  his 
brother,  gaining  all  the  land  up  to  that  on  which  the  city 
stands,  which  they  captured.  They  then  killed  many  people, 
took  the  brother  prisoner,  and  seized  all  the  treasure  of  the 
father.  When  this  news  came  to  Atabaliba,  he  ordered  his 
brother  to  be  brought  to  him  as  a  prisoner ;  and  there  is 
news  that  they  will  soon  arrive  with  him,  and  with  much 
treasure.  The  captains  remained  in  the  city  they  had  con- 
quered to  guard  it  and  the  treasure  it  contains.  They  kept 
ten  thousand  men  as  a  garrison,  out  of  forty  thousand  they 
'  Tumi-pampa.  *  Chalcuchinia. 


took  with  thenij  and  the  other  thirty  thousand  went  to  rest 
at  their  homes  with  the  spoils  they  had  secured.  Atabaliba 
conquered  all  that  his  brother  once  possessed. 

Atabaliba  and  his  Captains  General  who  were  carried  in 
litters,  have  killed  many  people  since  the  war  began;  and 
Atabaliba  has  perpetrated  many  cruelties  on  his  enemies. 
He  has  with  him  all  the  chiefs  of  the  villages  he  has  con- 
queredj  and  has  put  his  own  governors  in  all  the  villages, 
otherwise  he  could  not  keep  the  country  so  quiet,  and  thus 
he  has  been  feared  and  obeyed,  and  his  soldiers  have  been 
well  served  by  the  people,  who  have  also  been  treated  well. 
Atabaliba  intended,  if  his  imprisonment  had  not  come  upon 
him,  to  go  and  rest  in  his  own  land,  and,  on  his  way,  to 
complete  the  destruction  of  all  the  villages  in  the  district  of 
Tomepomba^  which  had   attempted  to  defend  themselves  ; 
peopling  them   with    new  families.      For  this  purpose  his 
captains  had  sent  four  thousand  married  men  of  the  people 
of  Cuzco  to  settle  in  Tomepomba.     Atabaliba  also  said  that 
he  would  deliver  his  brother,  whom  his  captains  were  bring- 
ing a  prisoner  to  this  city,  into  the  hands  of  the  Governor, 
to  do  with  him  as  he  pleased.     Atabaliba  feared  that  the 
Spaniards  would  kill  him,  so  he  told  the  Governor,  that  he 
would  give  his  captors  a  great  quantity  of  gold  and  silver.  The 
Governor  asked  him  :  "  How  much  can  you  give,  and  in  what 
time  V    Atabaliba  said  :  "  I  will  give  gold  enough  to  fill  a 
room  twenty-two  feet  long  and  seventeen  wide,  up  to  a  white 
line  which  is  half  way  up  the  wall."    The  height  would  be 
that  of  a  man^s  stature  and  a  half.     He  said  that,  up  to  that 
mark,  he  would  fill  the  room  with  different  kinds  of  golden 
vessels,  such  as  jars,  pots,  vases,  besides  lumps  and  other 
pieces.     As  for  silver,  he  said  he  would  fill  the  whole  cham- 
ber with  it  twice  over.     He  undertook  to  do  this  in  two 
months.      The  Governor  told  him  to  send  off  messengers 
with  this  object,  and  that,  when  it  was  accomplished,  he  need 

"  Tiimi-panijia. 


have  no  fear.  Then  Atabaliba  sent  messages  to  his  captains, 
who  were  in  the  city  of  Cuzco,  ordering  them  to  send  two 
thousand  Indians  laden  with  gold  and  silver,  without  count- 
ing that  which  was  coming  with  his  brother,  whom  they 
were  bringing  as  a  prisoner.  The  Governor  asked  him  : 
"  How  long  will  your  messengers  take  to  go  to  the  city  of 
Cuzco?"  Atabaliba  said:  "AVhen  they  are  sent,  with  speed, 
to  carry  some  tidings,  they  run  by  post  from  village  to 
village,  and  go  over  the  distance  in  five  days.  But  if  the 
man  who  stai-ts  with  the  message  goes  the  whole  way, 
though  he  be  an  agile  man,  he  will  take  fifteen  days,^'  The 
Governor  also  asked  him:  "Why  did  you  order  some 
Indians  to  be  killed,  whom  the  Christians  found  dead  in 
your  camp  when  they  examined  it  ?"  Atabaliba  answered  : 
"  On  the  day  that  the  Governor  sent  his  brother,  Hernando 
Pizarro,  to  the  camp  to  speak  with  me,  one  of  the  Christians 
charged  with  his  horse,  and  these  men  that  are  dead  ran 
back.  That  is  the  reason  that  I  oj-dered  them  to  be  killed.^' 
Atabaliba  was  a  man  of  thirty  years  of  age,  good  looking, 
somewhat  stout,  with  a  fine  face,  handsome  and  fierce,  the 
eyes  bloodshot.^  He  spoke  with  much  dignity,  like  a  great 
lord.  He  talked  with  good  arguments,  and  reasoned  well, 
and  when  the  Spaniards  understood  what  he  said,  they  knew 
him  to  be  a  wise  man.  He  was  cheerful ;  but,  when  he 
spoke  to  his  subjects,  he  was  very  haughty,  and  showed  no 
sign  of  pleasure.  Among  other  things,  Atabaliba  said  to 
the  Governor  :  '^  Ten  days^  journey  from  Caxamalca,  on  the 
road  to  Cuzco,  there  is,  in  a  village,  a  mosque,^  which  all  the 
inhabitants  of  that  land  look  upon  as  their  common  temple. 
In  it  they  all  offer  up  gold  and  silver,  and  my  father 
held  it  in  great  veneration,  as  well  as  myself.  This  mosque 
contains  great  riches,  for,  though  there  is  a  mosque  in  each 

^  He  wore  his  mantle  over  his  head,  covering  one  ear,  which  had  been 
broken  through  in  his  war  with  Huascar  (Pedro  Pizarro). 
'^  Pachacamac,  on  the  coast. 


village  where  they  have  their  special  idols  which  they 
worship,  in  this  mosque  there  is  a  general  idol  common  to 
all,  and  there  is  a  famous  sage  in  charge  of  that  mosque, 
whom  the  Indians  believe  to  have  a  knowledge  of  future 
events,  because  he  speaks  to  that  idol/'  Having  heard 
these  words  (though  he  had  already  heard  of  this  mosque), 
the  Governor  gave  Atabaliba  to  understand :  "  All  those 
idols  are  vanity,  and  he  who  speaks  from  them  is  the  Devil, 
who  deceives  men  and  brings  them  to  perdition,  a  fate  which 
has  befallen  all  those  who  have  lived  in  that  belief,  and  so 
died.  But  God  is  one  sole  Creator  of  heaven  and  earth,  and 
of  all  things  visible  and  invisible,  and  in  this  the  Christians 
believe.  Him  only  ought  we  to  hold  as  God,  and  we  are 
bound  to  do  what  he  commands,  and  to  receive  the  waters 
of  baptism.  Those  who  thus  act  will  be  received  into  His 
kingdom,  and  the  others  will  go  to  the  punishment  of  hell, 
where  those  are  burning  for  ever  who  were  without  this 
knowledge,  and  who  have  served  the  Devil,  making  sacri- 
fices and  offerings,  and  building  mosques  to  him.  All  these 
things  from  henceforth  must  cease,  because  for  this  the 
Emperor,  who  is  king  and  lord  of  the  Christians,  has  sent 
us.  It  was  because  your  people  had  Hved  as  they  have 
lived  without  a  knowledge  of  God  that  he  allowed  so  great 
an  army  of  them  to  be  defeated  and  taken  prisoners  by  a 
few  Christians.  How  little  help  your  God  has  given  you  ! 
By  this  you  may  know  that  he  is  the  Devil  who  deceives 
you.''  Atabaliba  said  :  "  Until  now  I  have  never  seen 
Christians,  nor  have  my  ancestors  known  anything  of  these 
things ;  and  I  have  lived  as  they  lived."  He  added  :  '"  I  am 
amazed  at  what  you  have  said ;  aud  I  well  know  that  the 
idol  is  not  the  true  God,  seeing  that  he  gave  me  so  little 


As  soon  as  the  Governor  and  the  Spaniards  were  rested 
from  the  fatigues  of  the  journey  and  of  the  battle,  he  sent 
uev/s  to  the  citizens  of  San  Miguel  of  what  had  happened. 


and  inquiries  as  to  their  well-being,  and  whether  any  ships 
had  arrived.  He  then  ordered  a  church  to  be  prepared  in 
the  square  of  Caxamalca,  in  which  to  celebrate  the  Holy 
Sacrament  of  the  Mass.  He  also  ordered  the  wall  sur- 
rounding the  square  to  be  pulled  down,  because  it  was  too 
low,  and  a  higher  wall  to  be  built.  In  four  days  a  wall  was 
built,  two  men's  lengths  in  height,  and  five  hundred  and 
fifty  paces  long.  He  also  caused  other  precautions  to  be 
taken  for  the  safety  of  the  camp.  Each  day  it  was  reported 
to  him  whether  there  was  any  concourse  of  people,  and  what 
things  happened  in  the  surrounding  country. 

When  the  chiefs  of  this  province  heard  of  the  arrival  of 
the  Governor,  and  of  the  imprisonment  of  AtabaHba,  many 
of  them  came  peacefully  to  see  the  Governor.  Some  of 
these  chiefs  were  lords  of  thirty  thousand  Indians,  all  sub- 
ject to  Atabaliba.  When  they  came  before  him,  they  made 
great  obeisances,  kissing  his  feet  and  hands.  He  received 
them  without  looking  at  them.  It  was  a  strange  thing 
this  gravity  of  Atabaliba,  and  the  reverence  with  which 
they  all  treated  him.  Every  day  they  brought  him  many 
presents  from  all  parts  of  the  land.  Thus,  prisoner  as  he 
was,  he  had  the  state  of  a  lord,  and  was  veiy  cheerful.  It 
is  true  that  the  Governor  treated  him  very  well ;  though 
sometimes  he  told  him  that  Indians  had  informed  the 
Spaniards  of  an  assemblage  of  his  troops  in  Guamachuco,'^ 
and  other  parts.  Atabaliba  repHed  that  throughout  that 
land  there  was  no  one  who  would  move  without  his  permis- 
sion ;  if,  therefore,  his  warriors  should  come,  the  Governor 
might  take  it  for  certain  that  he  had  ordered  them  to  come, 
and  that  then  he  could  do  with  him  as  he  pleased,  for  was 
he  not  his  prisoner.  The  Indians  said  many  things  which 
were  not  true,  although  they  gave  rise  to  some  excitement 

*  Huamachuco,  which  Cieza  de  Leon  states  to  be  eleven  leagues  south 
of  Cassa-marca.  See  my  translations  of  Cieza  de  Leon,  p.  287,  and  of 
GarcUasso  de  la  Vega,  ii.  p.  1;17. 

ARRIVAL    OP    THE    RANSOM.  69 

among  the  Spaniards.  Among  many  messengers  who  came 
to  Atabaliba,  there  came  one  from  those  who  were  bringing 
his  bi'other  a  prisoner,  to  report  that,  as  soon  as  they  had 
heard  of  his  imprisonment,  they  had  killed  the  Cuzco.* 
When  the  Governor  knew  this,  he  showed  much  displeasure. 
Then  Atabaliba  said  that  the  news  was  false,  that  the  Cuzco 
had  not  been  killed,  and  that  he  would  presently  arrive,  and 
that,  if  not,  the  Governor  might  order  him  to  be  killed. 
Afterwards  Atabaliba  declared  that  his  captains  had  killed 
the  Cuzco  without  his  knowledge.  The  Governor  obtained 
the  news  from  the  messengers,  and  knew  that  he  had  been 

After  some  days  some  of  the  people  of  Atabaliba  arrived. 
There  was  a  brother  of  his,  who  came  from  Cuzco,  and 
sisters  and  wives.  The  brother  brought  many  vases,  jars, 
and  pots  of  gold,  and  much  silver,  and  he  said  that  more 
was  on  the  road ;  but  that,  as  the  journey  is  so  long,  the 
Indians  who  bring  the  treasure  become  tired,  and  cannot  all 
come  so  quickly,  so  that  every  day  more  gold  and  silver  will 
arrive  of  that  which  now  remains  behind.  Thus  on  some 
days  twenty  thousand,  on  others  thirty  thousand,  on  others 
fifty  thousand  or  sixty  thousand  pesos  of  gold  arrived,  in 
vases,  great  pots  weighing  two  or  three  arrohas,  and  other 
vessels.  The  Governor  ordered  it  all  to  be  put  in  the  house 
where  Atabaliba  had  his  guards,  until  he  had  accomplished 
what  he  had  promised.  Twenty  days  of  the  month  of 
December  had  passed,  when  messengers  arrived  from  San 
Miguel  with  a  letter  which  informed  the  Governor  that  six 
ships  had  arrived  at  the  port  of  Cancebi,  near  Quaque. 
They  brought  one  hundred  and  fifty  Spaniards  and  eighty- 
four  horses.  The  three  larger  ships  came  from  Panama, 
and  on  board  them  were  the  Captain  Diego  de  Almagro  and 
one  hundred  and  twenty  men.     The  other  three  caravels 

*  Huascar  is  said  to  have  been  drowned  in  the  river  of  Anta-marca, 
See  Herrera,  Dec.  v,  lib.  ii,  cap.  2. 


were  from  Nicarague  with  thirty  men,  who  came  to  this 
government  with  the  desire  to  serve  in  it.  From  Oancebi, 
after  they  had  landed  the  troops  and  horses,  a  vessel  was 
sent  to  find  out  where  the  Governor  was,  and  she  arrived  at 
Tumbez ;  but  the  chief  of  that  province  would  give  no  in- 
formation, and  did  not  show  the  letter  which  the  Governor 
left  to  be  given  to  the  ships  that  might  arrive.  So  the 
ships  returned  without  obtaining  news  of  the  Governor. 
Another  vessel,  which  followed  the  first  along  the  coast,  ar- 
rived at  the  port  of  San  Miguel,  where  the  master  landed 
and  went  to  the  town.  There  was  great  rejoicing  at  his 
arrival,  and  he  returned  with  the  letters  which  the  Governor 
had  sent  to  the  citizens,  announcing  the  victorj^  which  God 
had  granted  to  hira  and  his  people,  and  the  great  riches  of 
the  land.  The  Governor,  and  all  who  were  with  him,  were 
much  pleased  at  the  arrival  of  these  ships.  He  sent  mes- 
sengers with  letters  to  the  Captain  Diego  de  Almagro  and 
some  persons  who  were  with  him,  telling  them  how  greatly 
he  rejoiced  at  their  arrival ;  and  that,  as  soon  as  they  came 
to  San  Miguel  (that  they  might  avoid  a  stress  of  provisions), 
they  should  depart  presently,  and  march  to  the  neighbour- 
ing districts,  on  the  road  to  Caxamalca,  where  there  is  great 
abundance.  He  added  that  he  would  arrange  about  sending 
down  gold  to  pay  the  freight  of  the  ships  that  they  might 

Every  day  chiefs  came  to  the  Governor.  Among  others, 
two  chiefs  came  who  were  called  chiefs  of  the  thieves,  be- 
cause their  people  attacked  all  who  passed  through  their 
land,  which  is  on  the  road  to  Cuzco.  After  A.tabaliba  had 
been  in  prison  for  sixty  days,  the  chief  of  the  village  in 
which  the  mosque  stands,^  and  the  guardian  of  the  mosque 
arrived  before  the  Governor,  and  he  asked  Atabaliba  who 
they  were.  Atabaliba  said  that  one  was  the  chief  of  the 
village  of  the  mosque,  and  that  the  other  was  the  keeper  of 

'  racliacainae. 


it,  and  that  he  rejoiced  at  his  arrival,  because  he  could  now- 
pay  him  out  for  the  lies  he  had  told.  Atabaliba  then  begged 
the  Governor  to  put  the  keeper  in  chains  because  it  was  he 
that  advised  the  war  with  the  Christians,  saying  that  the 
idol  had  foretold  that  all  would  be  killed.  He  had  also  told 
his  father,  the  Cuzco,  when  he  was  on  the  point  of  death, 
that  he  would  not  die  of  that  disease.  The  Governor  or- 
dered the  chain  to  be  brought,  and  Atabaliba  put  it  on, 
saying  that  it  should  not  be  taken  off  until  the  keeper  had 
caused  all  the  gold  of  the  mosque  to  be  brought.  Atabaliba 
told  the  keeper  that  he  wished  the  riches  of  the  mosque  to 
be  given  to  the  Christians  because  the  idol  was  a  liar ;  and 
he  added  :  "  I  wish  to  see  whether  this  that  you  call  your 
God  will  free  you  from  your  chains."  The  Governor  and  the 
chief,  who  came  with  the  keeper,  sent  their  messengers  to 
bring  the  gold  of  the  mosque  and  that  belonging  to  the 
chief,  and  it  was  said  that  they  could  return  in  fifty  days. 
The  Governor  had  information  that  there  were  assemblies  of 
men  in  the  land,  and  that  there  were  soldiers  at  Guama- 
chuco.  So  he  sent  Hernando  Pizarro,  with  twenty  horse 
and  some  foot,  to  Guamachuco,  which  is  three  days'  journey 
from  Caxamalca,  to  learn  what  was  going  on,  and  to  bring 
the  gold  and  silver  that  was  in  Guamachuco.  The  Captain 
Hernando  Pizarro  set  out  from  Caxamalca  on  the  eve  of  the 
Epiphany,  in  the  year  1533.  Fifteen  days  afterwards  some 
Christians  arrived  at  Caxamalca  with  a  great  quantity  of 
gold  and  silver.  There  were  more  than  three  hundred  loads 
of  gold  and  silver  in  jars  and  great  vases  and  in  divers  other 
shapes.  The  Governor  ordered  it  all  to  be  placed  with  the 
first  that  had  been  brought,  where  Atabaliba  had  his  guards 
stationed.  He  kept  it  there,  saying  that  he  wished  to  keep 
an  account,  as  he  had  to  accomplish  what  he  had  promised ; 
that  when  it  had  all  come,  he  might  deliver  up  the  whole. 
In  order  that  the  account  might  be  correct,  the  Governor 
also  guarded  the  treasure-house  night  and  day ;  and  when 


it  was  deposited  in  tlie  Louse  each  piece  was  counted,  that 
there  might  be  no  fraud.  With  this  gold  and  silver  came  a 
brother  of  Atabaliba,  who  said  that  there  was  still  a  great 
quantity  on  the  road  at  Xauxa,  in  charge  of  one  of  the 
Captains  of  Atabaliba,  named  Chilicuchima.^  Hernando 
Pizarro  wrote  to  the  Governor  that  he  had  informed  himself 
touching  what  was  going  on  in  the  land,  and  that  there  was 
no  news  of  any  assemblages,  nor  of  anything  else,  except 
that  the  g"old  was  at  Xauxa,  in  charge  of  a  Captain.  He 
desired  to  know  what  he  should  do,  and  whether  he  should 
advance,  adding  that  he  would  remain  where  he  was  uiitil 
he  received  further  orders.  The  Governor  answered  that  he 
was  to  proceed  to  the  mosque,  as  he  detained  the  keeper  of 
it  as  his  prisoner,  and  Atabaliba  had  ordered  its  treasure  to 
be  brought  to  Caxarnalca.  His  orders,  therefore,  were  to 
march  at  once  and  secure  all  the  gold  that  could  be  found  in 
the  mosque,  writing  a  report  from  every  village  of  what  had 
happened  on  the  road. 

Seeing  the  delay  there  was  in  bringing  the  gold,  the 
Governor  sent  three  Christians  to  fetch  the  gold  that  was  at 
Xauxa^  and  to  see  the  city  of  Cuzco.^    He  also  gave  powers 

«  Chalcuchima. 

'  Pizarro  appears  first  to  have  sent  three  soldiers  named  Pedro  Moguer, 
Francisco  de  Zarate,  and  Martin  Bueno  ;  but,  on  their  arrival  at  Cuzco, 
they  behaved  with  so  much  imprudence  and  insolence,  as  to  endanger 
their  own  lives  and  the  success  of  their  mission.  After  their  departure 
Pizarro  would  seem  to  have  doubted  the  wisdom  of  entrusting  so  delicate 
a  mission  to  common  soldiers.  He,  therefore,  ordered  two  officers  of 
distinction,  Hernando  de  Soto  and  Pedro  del  Barco,  a  native  of  Lobon, 
to  follow  the  three  soldiers  to  Cuzco.  They  travelled  in  litters,  carried 
on  the  shoulders  of  Indians.  On  reaching  Xauxa  they  met  the  unfor- 
tunate Ynca  Huascar,  being  brought  as  a  prisoner  to  his  brother  Atahu- 
allpa.  Huascar  promised  to  give  twice  as  much  gold  as  it  was  possible 
for  his  brother  to  find,  if  they  would  return  with  him  and  persuade 
Pizarro  to  judge  between  him  and  his  brother.  The  Spaniards  had  no 
interpreter ;  but  when  the  speech  was  reported  to  Atahuallpa,  he  sent 
orders  for  Huascar  to  be  murdered  on  the  road.     See  G.  de  la  Vega, 


to  one  of  the  three  to  take  possession  of  the  city  of  Cuzco 
and  its  districts,  in  the  name  of  his  Majesty,  in  presence  of 
a  notary  who  went  with  him.  He  sent  a  brother  of  Ata- 
baliba  with  them.  They  had  orders  not  to  injure  the 
natives,  nor  to  take  their  gold  nor  anything  else  against 
their  wills.  They  were  not  to  do  more  than  the  chief  who 
accompanied  them  wished  them  to  do,  lest  they  should  be 
killed ;  but  they  were  to  endeavour  to  get  a  sight  of  the 
city  of  Cuzco,  and  to  bring  a  report  of  all  they  saw.  These 
men  set  out  from  Caxamalca  on  the  5th  day  of  February  in 
the  above-mentioned  year. 

The  Captain  Diego  de  Alraagro  arrived  at  Caxamalca 
with  some  troops,  and  entered  it  on  Easter  eve,  being  the 
14th  of  April  of  the  said  year,  and  was  well  received  by  the 
Governor  and  those  who  were  with  him.  A  negro,  who  set 
out  with  the  Cuzco  party,  returned  on  the  28th  of  April  with 
one  hundred  and  seven  loads  of  gold  and  seven  of  silver.  He 
returned  from  Xauxa,  where  he  met  the  Indians  who  were 
coming  with  the  gold.  The  other  Christians  went  onto  Cuzco; 
and  the  negro  reported  that  the  Captain  Hernando  Pizarro 
would  return  very  shortly,  and  that  he  had  gone  to  Xauxa 
to  see  Chilicuchima.  The  Governor  ordered  this  gold  to  be 
put  with  the  rest,  and  all  the  pieces  to  be  counted. 

Pt.  II,  lib.  i,  cap.  31  ;  Zaraie,  u,  caj).  vi ;  Gomara,  cap.  cxiv ;  and  Her- 
rera,  Dec.  v,  lib.  i,  cap.  1. 

Of  the  two  Spaniards  who  visited  Cuzco,  Hernando  de  Soto  achieved 
immortal  fame  as  the  discoverer  of  Florida.  The  fate  of  Pedro  del 
Barco  was  less  fortunate.  He  received  half  the  convent  of  the  Virgins 
of  the  Sun  as  his  share  of  the  spoils  of  Cuzco,  and  sold  it  to  an  apothe- 
cary named  Segovia,  who  accidentally  discovered  a  treasure  under  the 
pavement  worth  seventy-two  thousand  ducats.  When  Gonzalo  Pizarro 
rose  in  rebellion,  Pedro  del  Barco  fled  from  Cuzco,  but  he  was  seized  at 
Lima  by  Gonzalo'a  cruel  old  Lieutenant  Carbajal,  and  hanged  on  a  tree 
outside  the  walls  of  the  town.  The  half-caste  orphan  children  of  Barco 
were  adopted  and  treated  with  great  kindness  by  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega, 
the  historian's  father.  One  was  a  schoolfellow  of  the  historian,  and  was 
afterwards  banished  to  Chile  by  the  Viceroy  Toledo. 


On  the  25th  of  March^  the  Captain  Hernando  Pizarro 
entered  Caxamalca  with  all  the  Christians  he  had  taken 
with  him^  and  with  the  Captain  Chilicuchima.  The  Go- 
vernor gave  him  and  his  companions  a  very  good  reception. 
He  brought  from  the  mosque  twenty-seven  loads  of  gold 
and  two  thousand  marcs  of  silver ;  and  he  delivered  to  the 
Governor  the  report^  which  was  drawn  up  by  Miguel  Estete,^ 
the  inspector,  who  accompanied  him  on  the  journey.  This 
report  is  as  follows  :  — 


Of  the  journey  made  by  El  Senor  Captain  Hernando  Pizarro, 
by  order  of  the  Governor,  Ids  brotJier,  from  the  city  of 
Caxamalca  to  Parcama,^  and  thence  to  Xauxa. 

On  Wednesday,  the  day  of  the  Epiphany  (which  is 
vulgarly  called  the  Festival  of  the  three  Kings),  on  the  5th 
of  January,  1533,  the  Captain  Fernando  Pizarro"  set  out 
from  the  town  of  Caxamalca  with  twenty  horse  and  a  few 
arquebusiers.  On  that  night  he  rested  at  some  liuts  which 
were  five  leagues  from  the  town.  Next  day  he  dined  at 
another  town  called  Ychoca,  where  he  was  well  received. 
They  gave  him  what  he  required  for  himself  and  his  people. 

^  This  should  be  April. 

8  IMiguel  Estete  (or  Astete)  was  the  man  who  pulled  the  royal  llautu 
or  fringe  from  the  head  of  Atahuallpa,  when  he  was  dragged  from  his 
litter.  Astete  kept  it  carefully ;  and  when  the  Viceroy,  Marquis  of 
Cauete,  raised  Sayri  Tupac  (son  of  Manco  and  grandson  of  Huayna 
Ccapac)  to  the  nominal  sovereignty,  many  years  afterwards,  Astete  pre- 
sented him  with  the  llautu  of  Atahuallpa.  Astete  settled  at  Huamanca, 
and  his  descendants  now  live  at  Cuzco.  They  were  friends  of  the  ill- 
fated  Tupac  Amaru  in  1782,  and  consistent  opponents  of  Spanish  tyranny. 
The  kindness  and  hospitality  of  the  good  old  Senora  Astete,  and  her  in- 
timate knowledge  of  Peruvian  history,  will  long  be  remembered  by  those 
who  knew  Cuzco  twenty  years  ago. 

'  Pachacamac. 

-  lie  was  accompanied  by  his  brothers  Juan  and  Gonzalo  {Herrera). 

TREASURE    ON    THE    ROAD.  75 

On  the  same  day  he  came  to  pass  the  night  at  another 
small  village  called  Huancasanga^  subject  to  the  town  of 
Guamachuco.  Next  morning  he  reached  the  town  of  Gua- 
machuco,  which  is  large,  and  is  situated  in  a  valley  sur- 
rounded by  mountains.  It  has  a  beautiful  view  and  good 
lodgings.  The  Lord  of  the  place  is  called  Guamanchoro, 
by  whom  the  Captain  and  his  companions  were  well  re- 
ceived. Here  arrived  a  brother  of  Atabaliba,  who  was 
hurrying  the  gold  up  from  Cuzco/  and  the  Captain  learnt 
from  him  that  the  Captain  Chilicuchima  was  twenty  days' 
journey  off,  and  that  he  was  bringing  the  treasure  that 
Atabaliba  had  sent  for.  When  he  found  that  the  treasure 
was  so  far  off,  the  Captain  sent  a  messenger  to  the 
Governor,  to  ask  him  what  should  be  done,  adding  that  he 
would  not  advance  until  he  received  further  orders.  In 
this  town  some  Indians  reported  that  Chilicuchima  was  far 
off;  and  some  principal  men,  having  been  bribed,  stated 
that  Chilicuchima  was  only  seven  leagues  distant,  in  the 
town  of  Andamarca,  with  20,000  men  of  war,  and  that  they 
were  coming  to  kill  the  Christians  and  to  liberate  their 
Lord.  The  chief  who  said  this  confessed  that  he  had  dined 
with  him  on  the  previous  day.  A  companion  of  this  chief, 
who  was  taken  aside,  made  the  same  statement.  The  Cap- 
tain, therefore,  resolved  to  go  in  search  of  Chilicuchima, 
and,  having  mustered  his  men,  he  commenced  the  march. 
He  passed  that  night  at  a  small  village,  subject  to  Guama- 

»  Garcilasso  says  that,  as  Hernando  Pizarro  and  his  party  were  march- 
ing along  a  mountain  side,  they  saw  a  golden  line  on  the  opposite  side 
shining  like  the  sun.  It  turned  out  to  be  a  long  train  of  Indians  who 
had  set  down  the  golden  vases  they  were  bringing  from  Cuzco  in  rows, 
to  rest ;  they  were  in  charge  of  a  brother  of  Atahuallpa,  named  Quillis- 
cacha.     This  is  the  Yllescas  of  the  Spanish  writers. 

The  above  story  was  told  to  Garcilasso  by  several  people  in  Peru,  and 
by  Don  Gabriel  Pizarro  in  Spain,  who  had  it  from  Don  Juan  Pizarro  de 
Orellana,  one  of  those  who  accompanied  Hernando  Pizarro  to  Pachaca- 

76         H.  rizARRO  resolvj:s  to  march  to  pachacamac. 

chuco,  called  Tambo ;  and  there  lie  received  the  same  in- 
formation as  had  been  given  him  before.  In  this  village  he 
had  a  good  watch  kept  all  night,  and  next  morning  he 
continued  his  journey  with  much  circumspection.  Before 
noon  he  reached  the  town  of  Andamarca,  but  he  did  not 
find  the  Captain,  nor  any  news  of  him,  beyond  what  had 
first  been  stated  by  the  brother  of  Atabaliba,  that  he  was 
in  a  town  called  Xauxa,  with  much  gold,  and  that  he  was 
on  his  way.  In  this  town  of  Andamarca  he  received  the 
reply  of  the  Governor,  which  was  that  Chilicuchima  and 
the  gold  were  far  off,  that  he  had  the  bishop  of  the  mosque 
of  Pachacama  in  his  power,  and  that,  as  to  the  great 
wealth  of  gold  in  the  mosque,  the  Captain  should  make 
inquiries  respecting  the  road,  and  if  it  seemed  good  to  him 
to  go  there,  he  might  go  ;  as  those  who  had  gone  to  Cuzco 
would  return  in  the  meanwhile.  The  Captain  ascertained 
the  distance  and  the  nature  of  the  road  to  the  mosque;  and, 
although  his  companions  were  badly  shod,*  and  otherwise 
indifferently  furnished  for  so  long  a  march  ;  he  considered 
that  he  would  be  doing  good  service  in  going  to  collect 
that  gold,  which  the  Indians  would  not  be  able  to  bring 
away  ;  and  that  it  was  desirable  to  examine  that  land,  and 
to  ascertain  whether  it  was  suitable  for  Christian  settle- 
ments. Although  he  had  information  that  there  were  many 
rivers,  and  bridges  of  network,  and  long  marches,  and 
difficult  passes,  he  yet  resolved  to  go,  and  he  took  with  him 
certain  chiefs  who  knew  the  country. 

He  commenced  his  journey  on  the  1 4th  of  January,  and 
on  the  same  day  he  crossed  some  difficult  passes,  and  two 
rivers,  passing  the  night  at  a  village   called   Totopamba, 

*  Herrage.  The  word  would  properly  apply  only  to  horses.  The 
Italian  translation  of  Gaztelii  renders  it  as  in  the  text.  Ternaux  Corn- 
pans,  however,  uses  the  word  arms  instead  of  shoes.  I  suspect  that  Xeres 
really  intended  to  say  that  both  men  and  horses  wore  badly  off  for  shoes, 
and  that  he  used  the  word  for  horse  shoes  to  include  all,  instead  of  using 
two  words. 


which  is  on  a  steep  declivity.^  The  Indians  received  him 
well  and  gave  him  good  food,  and  all  he  required  for  the 
night,  and  men  to  carry  his  baggage.  Next  day  he  left 
this  village,  and  reached  another  called  Corongo,  where  he 
passed  the  night.  Half  way  there  was  a  great  pass  of 
snow,  and  all  the  way  there  were  many  flocks  with  their 
shepherds,  who  have  their  houses  in  the  mountains,  as  in 
Spain.  In  this  village  they  were  given  food,  and  all  they 
required,  and  Indians  to  carry  the  loads.  This  village  is 
subject  to  Guamachuco.  Next  day  they  started  and  came 
to  another  small  village  called  Piga,  where  they  passed  the 
night.  They  found  no  inhabitants,  as  they  had  run  away 
from  fear.  This  was  a  very  severe  march,  for  they  had  to 
descend  a  flight  of  steps  cut  out  of  the  stone,  which  was 
very  dangerous  for  the  horses.  Next  day,  at  dinner  time, 
they  reach  a  large  village  in  a  valley,  and  a  very  rapid  river 
flowed  across  the  road.  It  was  spanned  by  two  bridges 
close  together,  made  of  network  in  the  following  manner. 
They  build  a  foundation  near  the  water,  and  raise  it  to  a 
great  height ;  and  from  one  side  of  the  river  to  the  other 
there  are  cables  made  of  reeds  like  osiers,  but  as  thick  as 
a  man's  thigh,  and  they  are  fastened  to  great  stones.  From 
one  cable  to  the  other  is  the  width  of  a  cart.  Smaller  cords 
are  interwoven  between  the  cables,  and  great  stones  are 
fastened  beneath,  to  steady  them.  By  one  of  these  bridges 
the  common  people  cross  over,  and  a  porter  is  stationed 
there  to  receive  transit  dues;  while  the  Lords  and  Captains 
use  the  other,  which  is  always  closed,  but  they  opened  it 
for  the  Captain  and  his  followers,  and  the  horses  crossed 
over  very  well. 

The  Captain  rested  in  this  village  for  two  days,  because 
both  men  and  horses  were  fatigued  by  the  bad  road.  The 
Christians  were  very  well  received,  and  were  supplied  with 

'  On  this  day  the  party  crossed  from  the  Maraiion  to  the  coast  water- 

78  MARCH    UP    THE    VALLEY    OF    HUARAS. 

food  and  all  that  they  required.  The  Lord  of  this  village 
was  called  Pumapaccha.  They  departed  from  it  and  came 
to  a  small  village,  where  they  were  given  all  they  wanted, 
and  near  it  they  crossed  another  bridge  of  network,  like 
the  former  one.  They  passed  the  night  two  leagues  further 
on,  at  another  village,  where  the  people  came  out  to  receive 
them  as  friends  and  gave  food  to  the  Christians,  and 
Indians  to  carry  their  loads.  This  day^s  march  was  through 
a  valley  covered  with  maize,  with  villages  on  either  side  of 
the  road.  The  next  day  was  Sunday.  They  started  in  the 
morning,  and  came  to  a  village  where  the  Captain  and  his 
companions  were  well  received.  At  night  they  reached 
another  village,  where  the  people  offered  sheep  and  chicha 
and  all  other  necessaries.  All  this  land  has  abundant 
supplies  of  maize  and  many  flocks ;  and,  as  the  Christians 
marched  along  the  road,  they  saw  the  sheep  crossing  it. 
Next  day,  at  dinner  time,  the  Captain  reached  a  great  town 
called  Huaras,^  the  Lord  of  which  was  called  Pumacapllai. 
He  and  his  people  supplied  the  Christians  with  provisions, 
and  with  Indians  to  carry  the  loads.  This  town  is  in  a 
plain,  and  a  river  flows  near  it.  Other  villages  were  in 
sight,  with  flocks  and  maize  fields.  They  had  two  hundred 
head  of  sheep  in  a  yard,  merely  to  supply  the  wants  of  the 
Captain  and  his  men.  The  Captain  departed  in  the  after- 
noon, and  stopped  for  the  night  at  another  village  called 
Sucaracoai,  where  he  was  well  received.  The  Lord  of  this 
village  was  named  Marcocana.  Here  the  Captain  rested 
for  one  day,  because  both  men  and  horses  were  tired.  A 
strict  watch  was  kept  because  the  village  was  large,  and 
Chilicuchima  was  near  with  55,000  men.  Next  day  they 
departed  from  this  village,  and,  after  marching  through  a 
valley,  where  there  was  much  tilled  land  and  many  flocks, 
stopped  for  the  night  at  a  distance  of  two  leagues,  in  a 

«  Capital  of  the  modern  Department  of  Ancachs,  in  the  valley  of  the 

MARCH    TO    THE    COAST.  79 

small  village  called  Pachicoto.  Here  the  Captain  left  the 
royal  road  which  leads  to  Cuzco,  and  took  that  of  the  coast 
valley.  Next  day  he  stopped  for  the  night  at  a  place  called 
Marcara,  the  chief  of  which  was  named  Corcara.  Here 
there  are  pastures,  and  at  a  certain  time  of  the  year  they 
bring  the  flocks  to  browse,  as  they  do  in  Castillo  and 
Estremadura.  From  this  village  the  rivers  flow  to  the  sea, 
which  makes  the  road  very  difficult,  for  all  the  country  in- 
land is  very  cold,  and  with  much  water  and  snow.  The 
coast  is  very  hot,  and  there  is  very  little  rain.  The  rain  is 
not  sufficient  for  the  crops,  but  the  waters  that  flow  from 
the  mountains  irrigate  the  land,  which  yields  abundant 
supplies  of  provisions  and  fruits. 

Next  day  they  departed  from  this  village,  and  marching 
along  the  banks  of  a  river,  following  its  downward  course 
through  fields  and  fruit  gardens,  they  stopped  for  the  night 
at  a  village  called  Guaracanga.  Next  day  they  stopped  at 
a  large  place  near  the  sea  called  Parpunga.  It  has  a  strong 
house  with  seven  encircling  walls  painted  in  many  devices 
both  inside  and  outside,  with  portals  well-built  like  those  of 
Spain,  and  two  tigers  at  the  principal  doorway.''  The  in- 
habitants were  filled  with  fear  at  the  sight  of  a  people  never 
before  seen,  and  of  the  horses,  which  astonished  them  still 
more.  The  Captain  spoke  to  them  through  the  interpreter 
who  accompanied  him,  to  re-assure  them,  and  they  then  did 
good  service. 

In  this  village  they  came  upon  another  broader  road, 
made  by  the  people  of  the  coast,  and  bounded  by  walls  on 
either  side.     The  Captain  rested  for  two  days  in  this  town 

'  I  think  this  Parpunga  is  the  Parmonga  of  Cieza  de  Leon  (p.  247) 
and  the  Parmunca  of  Garcilasso  (ii,  p.  195).  Rivero  spells  it  Para- 
manca  (p.  259).  Cieza  de  Leon  described  the  fortress,  the  ruins  of 
■which  are  also  mentioned  by  Proctor  {Travels^  p.  175).  Both  Cieza  de 
Leon  and  Proctor  mention  the  paintings  on  the  walls,  alluded  to  in  the 
text,  by  Astetc.     See  also  Anticpiedades  Peruanns,  p.  288. 

80  MARCH    ALONG    THE    COAST. 

of  Parpunga  to  refresh  his  people  and  get  them  re-shod. 
On  starting  again,  they  crossed  a  river  in  balsas,  the  horses 
swimming.     He  passed  the  night  at  a  village  called  Gua- 
mamayo/  which  is  in  a  ravine  near  the  sea.     Near  it  they 
had  to  cross  another  river  with  great  difficulty  by  swimming, 
for  it  was  much  swollen,  and  flowing  rapidly.     They  have 
no  bridges  across  these  coast  rivers,  because  they  become 
very  wide  when  they  are  swollen.     The  lord  of  this  village 
and  his  people  did  good  service  in  assisting  to  carry  the 
baggage   across,  and    they  gave    very    good    food   to    the 
Christians,  and  men   to   carry   their  loads.     The    Captain 
and  his  followers  set  out  from  this  village  on  the  9th  day  of 
January,^  and  passed  the  night  in  another  village  subject  to 
Guamamayo,  and  three  leagues  from  it  by  the  road.     The 
greater    part  was   inhabited,  and   there   were  tilled  fields, 
trees,  fruit  gardens,  and  a  clean  walled  road.     Next  day 
the  Captain  stopped  at  a  very  large  village  near  the  sea, 
called   Huara.^     This   town  is  well    situated,   and   contains 
large  edifices  for  lodging.     The  Christians  were  well  served 
by  the  chiefs  and  the  Indians,  who  supplied  them  with  what 
they  required   for   the    day.      On    the   following    day    the 
Captain  stopped  at  a  village   called  Llachu,  to  which  he 
gave  the  name  of  "  the  town  of  the  partridges,"  because 
there  were  many  partridges  kept  in  cages  in  all  the  houses." 
The  Indians   of  this   village  were  friendly  and  did   good 
service.  The  chief  of  this  village  did  not  make  his  appearance. 

^  This  is  the  Huaman-mayu,  or  "  Falcon  river",  mentioned  by  Cieza 
de  Leon.  It  is  now  called  La  Barranca.  The  breadth  of  the  channel 
is  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  and  during  the  rains  it  is  completely  full, 
and  often  impassable.     See  also  Ciarcilasso,  ii,  p.  185. 

®  This  date  must  be  either  a  misprint  or  a  mistake  of  Astete.  They 
left  Cassa-marca  on  Wednesday,  January  5th.  On  the  9th  they  were 
at  Andamarca.  By  following  their  itinerary,  it  will  be  found  that  the 
date  in  the  text  should  be  January  30th. 

^  The  modern  town  and  river  of  Huara.  The  port,  at  the  mouth  of 
the  river,  is  Huacho.  *  This  may  be  Chancay. 


The  Captain  stai'ted  rather  early  next  morning,  because  he  was 
informed  that  the  march  would  be  long,  and  he  reached  a  large 
village  called  Suculacumbi  at  dinner  time,  a  distance  of  five 
leagues.  The  Lord  of  the  village  and  his  Indians  were 
friendly,  and  supplied  all  the  food  that  was  necessary  for 
that  day.  At  the  hour  of  vespers  they  set  out  from  this 
village,  in  order  to  reach  the  town  where  the  mosque  is  on 
the  next  day.  They  crossed  a  great  river  by  a  ford/  and 
marched  along  a  road  with  a  wall  on  each  side,  passing  the 
night  at  a  place  belonging  to  the  town,  and  at  a  distance  of 
a  league  and  a  half  from  it.* 

The  next  day  was  Sunday,  the  30th  of  January.^  The 
Captain  departed  from  this  village,  and,  without  leaving 
groves  and  villages,^  he  reached  Pachacama,  which  is  the 
town  where  the  mosque  stands.  Halfway  there  is  another 
village,  where  the  Captain  dined.'''  The  Lord  of  Pachacama 
and  the  principal  men  came  out  to  receive  the  Captain  and 
the  Christians,  and  showed  a  desire  to  be  friends  with  the 
Spaniards.  The  Captain  went  to  lodge,  with  his  followers, 
in  some  large  chambers  in  one  part  of  the  town.^  He  said 
that  he  had  come,  by  order  of  the  Governor,  for  the  gold  of 
that  mosque,  and  that  they  were  to  collect  it  and  deliver  it 

^  The  river  llimac.  They  must  have  passed  over  the  site  of  the  future 
city  of  Lima. 

*  Marching  by  the  upper  road,  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains,  they 
came  to  the  village  of  Pachacamac,  some  miles  up  the  valley,  with  its 
groves  of  chirimoyas  and  suchis  (Plumieria).    A  charming  spot. 

=  This  date  should  be  Sunday,  February  5th.  January  30th  was  on 
a  Monday. 

8  The  valley  of  Lurin,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  stream.  The  ruined 
city  and  temple  are  in  the  desert,  on  the  right  bank. 

'  Not  now  existing.  There  is  a  hacienda,  on  an  isolated  rock  over- 
looking the  rich  vale  of  Lurin,  called  Bella  Vista,  half-way  between  the 
village  of  Pachacamac  and  the  ruins  of  the  city  and  temple. 

^  These  are  courts  rather  than  chambers,  of  great  extent,  with  smaller 
chambers  and  recesses  opening  upon  them,  all  built  of  immense  adobes. 
They  are  still  standing. 


up,  or  to  convey  it  to  where  the  Governor  then  was.  All 
the  principal  men  of  the  town  and  the  attendants  of  the 
Idol  assembled  and  replied  that  they  would  give  it,  but 
they  continued  to  dissimulate  and  make  excuses.  At  last 
they  brought  a  very  little,  and  said  that  they  had  no  more. 
The  Captain  dissimulated  also,  and  said  that  he  wished  to 
go  and  see  the  Idol  they  had,  and  he  went.  It  was  in  a 
good  house,  well  painted,  in  a  very  dark  chamber  with  a 
close  fetid  smell.  Here  there  was  a  very  dirty  Idol  made  of 
wood,  and  they  say  that  this  is  their  God  who  created  them 
and  sustains  them,  and  gives  them  their  food.  At  the  foot 
of  the  Idol  there  were  some  offerings  of  gold,  and  it  was 
held  in  such  veneration  that  only  the  attendants  and 
servants,  who,  as  they  say,  were  appointed  by  it,  were 
allowed  to  officiate  before  it.  No  other  person  might  enter, 
nor  is  any  other  considered  worthy  even  to  touch  the  walls 
of  the  house.  The  Captain  ascertained  that  the  Devil 
frequented  this  Idol,  and  spoke  with  his  servants,  saying 
diabolical  things,  which  were  spread  over  all  the  land. 
They  look  upon  him  as  God,  and  offer  many  sacrifices  to 
him.  They  come  to  this  Devil,  from  distances  of  three  hun- 
dred leagues,  with  gold  and  silver  and  cloth.  Those  that 
arrive,  go  to  the  porter  and  beg  that  their  gift  may  be  ac- 
cepted. He  enters  and  speaks  with  the  Idol,  who  says  that  he 
consents.  Before  any  of  his  ministers  may  enter  to  minister 
to  him,  they  say  that  they  must  fast  for  many  days  and  refrain 
from  women.  In  all  the  streets  of  this  town,  and  at  its  prin- 
cipal gates,  and  round  this  house,  there  are  many  wooden 
Idols,  which  they  worship  as  imitations  of  their  Devil.  It  was 
ascertained  from  many  lords  of  this  land  that,  from  the  town 
of  Catamez,^  which  is  at  the  commencement  of  this  govern- 
ment, all  the  people  of  this  coast  serve  this  mosque  with 
gold  and  silver,  and  offer  a  certain  tribute  every  year. 
There  were  houses  and  superintendents  to  receive  the 
'•'  Atacamcs,  on  the  coast  of  Ecuador. 


tribute,  where  they  found  some  gold,  and  there  were  signs 
that  much  more  had  been  taken  away.  Many  Indians  de- 
posed that  the  gold  was  removed  by  order  of  the  Devil.  I 
omit  many  things  that  might  be  said  touching  the  worship 
of  this  Idol,  to  avoid  prolixity.  But  it  is  believed  among 
the  Indians  that  this  Idol  is  their  God,  that  he  can  destroy 
them  if  they  offend  him  and  do  not  serve  him  well,  and  that 
all  the  things  in  the  world  are  in  his  hands.  The  people 
were  so  shocked  and  terrified  at  the  Captain  having  merely 
gone  in  to  see  it,  that  they  thought  the  Idol  would  destroy 
all  the  Christians.  But  the  Spaniards  gave  the  Indians  to 
understand  that  they  were  in  a  great  error,  and  that  he  who 
spoke  from  the  inside  of  the  Idol  was  the  Devil,  who  de- 
ceived them.  They  were  told  that  from  henceforth  they 
must  not  believe  him,  nor  do  what  he  advised  them ;  and 
were  taught  other  things  touching  their  idolatries. 

The  Captain  ordered  the  vault,  in  which  the  Idol  was,  to 
be  pulled  down,  and  the  Idol  to  be  broken  before  all  the 
people.  He  then  told  them  many  things  touching  our 
Holy  Catholic  Faith,  and  he  taught  them  the  sign  of  the 
cross  >i<,  that  they  might  be  able  to  defend  themselves 
against  the  Devil.  This  town  of  Pachacama  is  very  large. 
Adjoining  the  mosque  there  is  a  house  of  the  Sun,  well 
built,  and  situated  on  a  hill,  with  five  surrounding  walls. 
There  are  houses  with  terrace  roofs  as  in  Spain.  The  town 
appears  to  be  old,  judging  from  the  ruined  houses  it  con- 
tains ;  and  the  greater  part  of  the  outer  wall  has  fallen. 
The  name  of  the  principal  lord  is  Taurichumbi.  The  neigh- 
bouring lords  came  to  the  town  to  see  the  Captain,  with 
presents  of  the  products  of  their  land,  and  with  gold  and 
silver.  They  wondered  greatly  that  the  Captain  should 
have  dared  to  enter  where  the  Idol  was,  and  to  see  it 

The  Lord  of  Malaque,^  named  Lincoto,   came  to  offer 
'  Mala,  a  coast  valley  to  the  south  of  Pachacamac. 


obedience  to  his  Majesty,  and  brought  a  present  of  gold  and 
silver.  The  Lord  of  Poax,  named  Alincai,  did  the  same. 
The  Lord  of  Gualco/  named  Guarilli,  also  brought  gold  and 
silver.  The  Lord  of  Chincha/  with  ten  of  his  chief  men, 
came  with  a  present  of  gold  and  silver.  This  Lord  said 
that  his  name  was  Tamviambea.  The  Lord  of  Guaxcha- 
paicho,  and  the  Lord  of  Colixa  named  Aci,  the  Lord  of 
Sallicaimarca  named  Yspilo,  and  other  principal  Lords  of 
the  surrounding  country,  brought  in"  presents  of  gold  and 
silver,  which,  joined  to  that  taken  out  of  the  mosque,  made 
ninety  thousand  pesos.^  The  Captain  talked  very  kindly  to 
all  these  Chiefs,  rejoicing  at  their  coming.  He  commanded 
them,  in  the  name  of  his  Majesty,  always  to  behave  in  the 
same  way,  and  dismissed  them,  well  satisfied. 

In  this  town  of  Pachacama,  the  Captain  Hernando  Pizarro 
received  news  that  Chilicuchima,^  a  Captain  of  Atabaliba, 
was  at  a  distance  of  four  days'  journey  with  a  large  force, 
and  with  the  gold ;  and  that  he  would  not  march  onwards, 
but  declared  that  he  was  ready  to  fight  the  Christians. 
The  Captain  sent  a  messenger  to  him,  urging  him  to  con- 
tinue his  march  with  the  gold,  as  his  master  was  in  prison  ; 
telling  him  that  he  was  long  behind  his  time,  and  that  the 
Governor  was  angry  at  his  delay,  as  he  had  been  expected 
for  many  days.  He  sent  many  other  messages,  urging  him 
to  come,  as  he  was  unable  to  go  and  meet  him  where  he 
then  was,  because  the  road  was  bad  for  the  horses ;  and 
arranging  that  the  one  who  reached  a  certain  village  on  the 
road   first  should  wait  there  for  the   other.     Chilicuchima 

-  Huarcu.  The  modern  name  of  this  rich  valley  is  Cafiete.  It  con- 
tains several  flourishing  sugar  estates. 

»  The  next  valley,  south  of  Cafiete. 

■•  It  was  said,  according  to  Herrera,  that  the  Priests  concealed  four 
hundred  loads  of  gold  and  silver,  and  that  Hernando  Pizarro  only  col- 
lected nine  hundred  castellanos.     Dec.  v,  lib.  ii,  cap.  3,  p.  54. 

^  Chalcuchima. 



sent  a  message  in  reply,  saying  that  he  would  do  what  the 
Captain  desired,  and  that  he  had  no  other  intention. 

The  Captain  then  set  out  from  the  town  of  Pachacama, 
to  form  a  junction  with  Chilicuchima.  He  marched  by  the 
same  road  as  he  had  come,  until  he  reached  Huara, 
which  is  on  the  coast  near  the  sea.  Then  he  left  the  coast 
and  marched  into  the  interior.  The  Captain  Hernando 
Pizarro  left  the  town  of  Huara  on  the  3rd  of  March,  and 
advanced  along  a  road  on  the  bank  of  a  river  during  the 
whole  day,  where  there  were  many  groves  of  trees.  He 
passed  the  night  at  a  village  on  the  banks  of  the  river. 
The  village  where  the  Captain  slept  belongs  to  the  town  of 
Huara,  and  is  called  Guaranga.  Next  day  the  Captain  left 
this  village,  and  reached  another  called  Aillon,  near  the 
mountains.  It  is  subject  to  a  larger  place  called  Aratambo, 
which  is  rich  in  flocks  and  maize  crops. 

On  the  5th  of  March  he  passed  the  night  at  a  village  be- 
longing to  Caxatambo,  called  Chincha.     On  the  road  they 
had  to  cross  a  pass  where  the  snow  was  very  deep,  reaching 
to  the  girths  of  the  horses.     This  village  has  large  flocks. 
The  Captain  remained  there  for  two  days.     On  Saturday, 
the    7th   of  March,   he    set    out,  and  passed  the  night  at 
Caxatambo.    This  is  a  large  town,  situated  in  a  deep  valley, 
where  there  are  many  flocks,  and  all  along  the  road  there 
were  sheepfolds.     The  chief  of  this  village  is  called  Sachao, 
and  he  did  good  service  to  the  Spaniards.     At  this  town 
the  Captain  changed  his  route,  in  order  to  take  the  broad 
road  by  which  Chilicuchima  would  come,  which  entailed  a 
flank  march  of  three  days.    Here  the  Captain  made  inquiries 
whether  Chilicuchima  had  passed,  in  order  to  form  a  junc- 
tion.    All  the  Indians  said   that  he  had  passed  with   the 
gold ;  but  it  afterwards  appeared  that  they  had  been  told  to 
say  this,  that  the  Captain  might  be  induced  to  march  on- 
wards ;  while  he  remained  in  Xauxa,  with  no  intention  of 
moving.      The    Captain,    however,    considered   that    these 


Indians  seldom  spoke  the  truth ;  so  he  determined,  al- 
though it  entailed  great  trouble  and  danger,  to  march  to 
the  royal  road  by  which  Chilicuchiraa  must  go,  in  order  to 
ascertain  whether  he  had  already  passed.  If  he  had  not 
gone  on,  the  Captain  resolved  to  seek  him  out,  wherever  he 
might  be,  as  well  to  secure  the  gold  as  to  disperse  his 

The  Captain,  with  his  followers,  took  the  way  leading  to 
a  large  village  called  Pombo,  which  is  on  the  royal  road. 
On  Monday,  the  9th  of  March,  they  slept  at  a  village, 
situated  amongst  mountains,  called  Diu.  The  chief  of  this 
village  was  friendly,  and  gave  the  Christians  all  they  re- 
quired for  the  night.  The  Governor  started  early  next 
morning,  and  passed  the  following  night  in  a  small  village 
of  shepherds,  near  a  lake  of  sweet  water,  about  three 
leagues  in  circuit;^  on  a  plain  where  there  were  large 
flocks  of  sheep  with  very  fine  wool.  Next  day,  which 
was  Wednesday,  in  the  morning,  the  Captain  and  his  com- 
panions reached  the  village  of  Pombo,''  and  the  Lords  of 
Pombo  came  out  to  meet  him,  with  some. Captains  of  Ata- 
baliba  who  were  there  with  troops.  Here  the  Captain 
found  one  hundred  and  fifty  arrobas  of  gold,  which  Chili- 
cuchima  had  sent,  while  he  himself  remained  with  his  forces 
in  Xauxa.  When  the  Captain  had  taken  up  his  quarters, 
he  asked  the  Captains  how  it  was  that  Chilicuchima  had 
sent  that  gold,  and  had  not  come  himself  according  to 
orders.  They  answered  that  it  was  because  he  was  in  great 
fear  of  the  Christians,  and  also  because  he  was  waiting  for 
more  gold  that  was  coming  from  Cuzco,  as  he  did  not  like 
to  come  himself  with  so  little. 

The   Captain  Hernando  Pizarro'  sent  a  messenger  from 
this  village  to  Chilicuchima,  to  let  him  know  that  as  he  had 

«  This  seems  to  have  been  the  lake  of  Lauricocha,  the  source  of  the 

'  I'limpn  of  Garcilafeso  de  la  Vega,  the  modern  Bombon. 

MARCH    TO    TARMA.  87 

not  come,  he  would  go  to  him,  and  that  he  need  have  no 
fear.  The  Captain  rested  for  one  day  in  that  village  to 
refresh  the  horses,  in  case  it  should  be  necessary  to  fight. 
On  Friday,  the  14th  of  March,  the  Captain  set  out  from  the 
village  of  Pombo,  with  his  horse  and  foot,  to  go  to  Xauxa. 
That  night  was  passed  in  a  village  called  Xacamalca,  six 
leagues  from  Pombo,  over  level  ground.  On  this  plain 
there  is  a  lake  of  sweet  water  which  commences  near  this 
village,  and  has  a  circuit  of  eight  or  ten  leagues.^  The  lake 
has  villages  all  round  its  shores,  and  large  flocks,  while  in 
its  waters  are  birds  and  small  fish.^  The  father  of  Atabaliba 
had  many  balsas  in  this  lake,  which  were  brought  from 
Tumbez  for  his  amusement.  A  river  flows  out  of  the  lake 
to  the  village  of  Pombo,  and  a  branch  of  it  is  very  deep  and 
rapid.  They  can  float  by  it  to  a  bridge  near  the  village; 
and  those  who  pass  pay  dues  as  in  Spain.  All  along  the 
banks  of  this  river  there  are  large  flocks,  and  the  name  of 
Guadiana  was  given  to  it,  because  of  the  resemblance  to 
that  river  in  Spain. 

On  Saturday,  the  15th  of  the  month,  the  Captain  left  the 
village  of  Xacamalca,  and  after  marching  three  leagues  he 
came  to  a  house,  where  he  and  his  men  were  well  supplied 
with  food.  He  passed  that  night  three  leagues  further  on, 
at  a  town  called  Tarma,  which  is  on  the  slope  of  a  mountain. 
Here  he  was  lodged  in  a  painted  house,  which  contained 
good  rooms.  The  chief  of  this  place  behaved  well,  both 
in  supplying  food  and  men  to  carry  loads.  On  Sunday 
morning  the  Captain  set  out  rather  early  from  this  village, 

8  The  lake  of  Bombon  or  Chinchay-cocha.  It  is  thirty-six  miles  long, 
by  six  broad,  and  12,940  feet  above  the  sea.  The  plain  or  basin  in 
which  it  lies  is  forty-live  miles  long.     The  river  of  Xauxa  flows  out  of 

the  lake. 

9  A  great  number  of  large  and  beautiful  water  fowl,  including  the 
scarlet  flamingo,  and  several  varieties  of  snipe,  frequent  the  banks  of 
the  lake,  which  arc  overgrown  with  reeds.  See  Von  Tschudi  and 


having  a  long  marcli  before  him.  He  caused  his  men  to 
advance  in  order  of  battle^  because  he  suspected  some 
treachery,  not  having  received  any  answer  from  Chili- 
cuchima.  At  the  hour  of  vespers  he  reached  a  village  called 
Yanaimalca,  where  the  people  came  out  to  him.  Here  he 
received  news  that  Chilicuchima  was  not  in  Xauxa,  which 
increased  his  suspicions.  The  Captain  was  now  only  a 
league  from  Xauxa,  so  after  dinner  he  again  marched  on- 
wards, and,  having  come  in  sight  of  the  town,  he  saw  many 
bodies  of  men  from  a  hill ;  but  he  could  not  make  out 
whether  they  were  soldiers  or  townspeople  who  had  as- 
sembled for  some  festival. 

As  soon  as  the  Captain  arrived,  and  before  he  dismounted, 
he  asked  for  Chilicuchima,  and  the  people  answered  that  he 
was  at  some  other  village,  and  that  he  would  return  next 
day.  He  had  absented  himself  on  pretence  of  business 
until  he  might  learn  from  the  Indians  who  came  with  the 
Captain  the  intentions  of  the  Spaniards  ;  for  he  saw  that  he 
had  committed  a  fault  in  not  having  kept  his  promise,  and 
that  the  Captain  had  come  eighty  leagues  in  pursuit  of  him. 
These  considerations  made  him  think  that  the  Spaniards  came 
to  seize  or  kill  him,  and  he  had  absented  himself  from  fear 
of  them,  especially  of  those  who  were  on  horseback.  The 
Captain  had  with  him  a  son  of  the  old  Cuzco  who,  when  he 
heard  of  the  absence  of  Chilicuchima,  said  that  he  wished 
to  go  where  he  was,  and  set  out  in  a  litter.  All  that  night 
the  horses  were  saddled  and  bridled,  and  the  Lords  of  the 
town  were  told  that  no  Indian  was  to  appear  in  the  square, 
because  the  horses  were  angry  and  would  kill  them.  Next 
day  that  son  of  the  Cuzco  returned  with  Chilicuchima,  both 
in  litters,  and  numerously  attended.  On  entering  the  square 
they  alighted,  and,  leaving  all  their  servants,  they  went  on 
foot,  with  a  few  attendants,  to  the  house  occupied  by  the 
Captain  Hernando  Pizarro,  for  Chilicuchima  to  see  him  and 
offer  his  excuses  for  not  having  fulfilled  his  promise,  or  come 


out  to  receive  him.  He  said  his  business  had  prevented 
him  from  doing  more.  The  Captain  asked  why  he  had  not 
come  to  meet  him,  as  he  had  promised.  Chilicuchima  an- 
swered that  his  master  AtabaUba  had  sent  orders  to  him  to 
remain  where  he  was.  The  Captain  then  said  that  he  felt 
no  anger  against  him,  but  that  he  must  accompany  him 
back  to  the  Governor,  who  had  his  master  AtabaHba  a 
prisoner,  and  who  would  keep  him  until  he  had  given  up  the 
gold  that  had  been  demanded.  The  Captain  added  that  he 
knew  how  much  gold  there  was,  and  that  it  must  be  de- 
livered up,  but  he  assured  Chilicuchima  that,  although  he 
must  accompany  him  back,  he  would  be  well  treated.  Chili- 
cuchima replied  that  his  Lord  had  sent  to  order  him  to  do 
otherwise,  and  not  to  go,  because  that  country  was  lately 
conquered,  and  might  again  rebel  if  he  left  it.  Hernando 
Pizarro  conversed  with  him  for  some  time,  and  finally  it  was 
arranged  that  they  should  pass  the  night  there,  and  again 
discuss  the  matter  in  the  morning.  The  Captain  desired  to 
carry  his  point  by  fair  means,  because  he  was  anxious  to 
avoid  disturbances,  lest  it  should  compromise  the  safety  of 
three  Spaniards  who  had  gone  to  the  city  of  Cuzco.  Next 
morning  Chilicuchima  came  to  the  Captain^s  lodging  and 
said  that,  as  he  desired  him  to  accompany  the  Spaniards, 
he  could  not  refuse  to  obey,  and  that  he  was  ready  to  go, 
leaving  another  Captain  with  the  troops  at  Xauxa.  On 
that  day  he  got  together  about  thirty  loads  of  gold  ;  and 
after  marching  for  two  days  they  met  thirty  or  forty  loads. 
During  those  days  the  Spaniards  kept  a  good  look  out,  the 
horses  being  kept  saddled  night  and  day ;  for  this  Captain 
of  Atabaliba  had  so  large  a  force  that  if  he  had  made  a 
night  attack  on  the  Spaniards  he  would  have  done  much 

The  town  of  Xauxa  is  very  large.  It  is  situated  in  a 
beautiful  valley,  and  enjoys  a  temperate  climate.  A  very 
large  river  flows  near  the  town.     The  land  is  fertile.     The 


town  is  built  like  those  of  Spain,  with  regular  streets,  and 
many  subject  villages  are  in  sight.  The  town  and  district 
are  very  populous,  and  the  Spaniards  saw  one  hundred 
thousand  people  assemble  every  day  in  the  principal  square. 
The  market  places  and  streets  were  also  crowded.  There 
were  men  whose  duty  it  was  to  count  all  these  people,  and 
to  know  who  came  in  for  the  service  of  the  troops  ;  and 
other  men  had  to  watch  and  take  note  of  all  who  entered 
the  town.  Chilicuchima  had  stewards  whose  duty  it  was  to 
supply  provisions,  and  many  carpenters  who  worked  in 
wood,  and  many  other  men  to  attend  upon  his  wants  and 
wait  on  his  person.  There  were  three  or  four  porters  in 
his  house,  and  both  in  his  household  service,  and  in  every- 
thing else  he  imitated  his  Lord.  He  was  feared  throughout 
this  land,  for  he  was  a  brave  warrior,  and,  under  orders 
from  his  Lord,  he  had  conquered  more  than  two  hundred 
leagues  of  country,  and  had  had  many  encounters  both  in 
the  plains  and  in  the  passes,  in  all  of  which  he  had  been 
victorious,  and  in  none  had  he  been  vanquished  throughout 
all  that  land. 

On  Friday,  the  20th  of  March,  the  Captain  Hernando 
Pizarro  departed  from  that  city  of  Xauxa  to  return  to  Caxa- 
inalca,  accompanied  by  Chilicuchima.  He  marched  by  the 
same  road  to  the  village  of  Pompo,  where  he  stayed  for  the 
day  he  arrived,  and  one  more.  On  Wednesday  he  set  out 
from  this  village  of  Pompo,  and  marching  over  plains 
covered  with  flocks,  he  passed  the  night  at  some  large  build- 
ings. On  that  day  it  snowed  heavily.  Next  day  he  came 
to  a  village  amongst  the  mountains  called  Tambo,  which  is 
near  a  large  and  deep  river,  where  there  is  a  bridge.  There 
is  a  flight  of  stone  steps  to  descend  to  the  river,  and  if  the 
position  was  defended,  much  mischief  might  be  done.  The 
Captain  received  good  service  from  the  Lord  of  this  village, 
and  was  supplied  with  all  that  he  and  his  party  required. 
They  made  a  great  festival  out  of  respect  for  the  Captain 


Hernando  Pizarro,  and  because  Chilicuclnima  accompanied 
him.  Next  day  they  came  to  a  village  called  Tomsucancha, 
the  lord  of  which,  named  Tillima,  received  them  well.  There 
were  plenty  of  Indians  fit  for  service ;  for,  though  the  vil- 
lage was  small,  many  had  assembled  from  the  surrounding 
country  to  see  the  Spaniards.  In  this  village  there  are  small 
sheep  with  very  fine  wool,  like  those  of  Spain.  Next  day 
they  reached  a  village  called  Guaneso,^  a  march  of  five 
leagues,  the  greater  part  over  a  paved  road,  with  channels 
of  water  by  the  side.  They  say  that  the  road  was  paved  on 
account  of  the  snow,  which,  at  a  certain  season  of  the  year, 
falls  over  that  land.  This  town  of  Guaneso  is  large.  It  is 
situated  in  a  valley,  surrounded  by  steep  mountains,  the 
valley  being  three  leagues  in  circuit.  On  the  side  leading 
to  Caxamalca  there  is  a  long  and  very  steep  ascent.  The 
Captain  and  his  followers  were  very  well  received,  and 
during  the  two  days  that  they  remained,  the  inhabitants 
celebrated  several  feasts.  This  town  has  other  surrounding 
villages  under  its  jurisdiction.     It  is  a  land  of  many  flocks. 

On  the  last  day  of  March  the  Captain  departed  from  this 
town,  and  reached  a  bridge  over  a  large  river,  built  of  very 
stout  timber.  There  were  guard^s  stationed  there  to  receive 
transit  dues,  as  is  their  custom.  They  passed  the  night  at 
a  distance  of  four  leagues  from  the  town,  where  Chilicuchima 
had  caused  all  necessary  preparations  to  be  made.  Next 
day,  being  the  1st  of  April,  they  reached  a  village  called 
Piscomarca.  It  is  on  the  slope  of  a  very  steep  mountain. 
Its  chief  is  named  Parpay.  Next  day  the  Captain  departed 
from  this  village,  and,  after  a  march  of  three  leagues,  arrived 
at  a  good  village  called  Huari,^  where  there  is  a  large  and 
deep  river,  over  which  there  is  another  bridge.  This  posi- 
tion is  very  strong,  there  being  deep  ravines  on  either  flank. 
Chilicuchima  said  that  here  he  had  fought  a  battle  with 
the  troops  of  the  Cuzco,  who  guarded  the  pass,  defending 

'  lluanuco.  ^  In  the  valley  of  the  Maranon. 


it  for  two  or  three  days.  When  those  of  Cuzco  were  de- 
feated, and  some  of  their  enemies  had  crossed  the  river, 
they  destroyed  the  bi-idge,  so  that  Chilicuchima  and  his 
troops  swam  across,  and  killed  many  of  the  men  of  Cuzco. 

Next  day  the  Captain  set  out,  and,  after  a  march  of  five 
leagues,  he  passed  the  night  at  a  village  called  Guacango. 
Next  day  he  reached  the  large  town  of  Piscobaraba,^  which 
is  on  the  side  of  a  mountain.  The  chief  is  called  Tauquame; 
and  he  and  his  people  received  the  Captain  well,  and  did 
good  service  to  his  followers.  Half-way  to  this  town,  at 
Huacacamba,  there  is  another  deep  river  with  two  bridges 
of  net-work  close  together,  resting  on  a  foundation  of  stone 
rising  from  the  water;  like  those  I  have  mentioned  before. 
From  one  side  to  the  other  there  are  cables  of  reed,  the 
size  of  a  man's  thigh,  and  between  are  woven  many  stout 
cords  ;  to  which  large  stones  are  fastened,  for  the  purpose 
of  steadying  the  bridge.  The  horses  crossed  this  bridge 
without  trouble  ;  but  it  is  a  nervous  thing  to  pass  over  it 
for  the  first  time,  though  there  is  no  danger,  as  it  is  very 
strong.  There  are  guards  at  all  these  bridges,  as  in  Spain. 
Next  day  the  Captain  departed  from  Piscobamba,  and 
reached  some  buildings,  after  a  march  of  five  leagues.  Next 
day  he  came  to  a  village  called  Agoa,  which  is  subject  to 
Piscobamba.  It  is  a  good  village  among  the  mountains,  and 
is  surrounded  by  fields  of  maize.  The  chief  and  his  people 
supplied  what  was  required  for  the  night,  and  next  morning 
provided  porters  for  the  baggage.  Next  day  the  Captain 
marched  for  four  leagues  over  a  very  rugged  road,  and 
passed  the  night  at  Conchuco.*  This  village  is  in  a  hollow. 
Half  a  league  before  reaching  it,  there  is  a  wide  road  cut  in 

'  See  Cieza  de  Leon,  p.  293.  He  says  that  Piscobamba  is  ciglit  leagues 
from  Iluaraz,  over  very  rugged  mountains.  See  also  Garcilasso  de  la 
Vega,  ii,  p.  134. 

■*  See  Cieza  de  Leon,  p.  286.  It  is  the  Cunchucu  of  Garcilasso,  ii,  p. 


steps  in  the  rock,  and  there  are  many  difficult  passes^  and 
places  which  might  easily  be  defended.  Next  day  they  set 
out,  and  reached  a  place  called  Andamarca,  which  is  the 
point  where  they  had  diverged  to  go  to  Pachacama.  At 
this  town  the  two  royal  roads  to  Cuzco  unite. ^  From  Au- 
damarca  to  Pombo^  there  are  three  leagues  over  a  very 
rugged  road ;  and  stone  steps  are  cut  for  the  ascents  and 
descents  ;  while  on  the  outer  side  there  is  a  stone  wall,  to  pro- 
tect the  traveller  from  the  danger  of  slipping.  If  any  man 
fell,  he  would  be  dashed  to  pieces  ;  and  it  is  an  excellent 
thing  for  the  horses,  as  they  would  fall  if  there  was  no 
flanking  wall.  In  the  middle  of  the  road  there  is  a  bridge 
of  stone  and  wood,  very  well  built,  between  two  masses  of 
rock.  At  one  end  of  the  bridge  there  are  well-built  lodgings 
and  a  paved  court,  where,  according  to  the  Indians,  the 
lords  of  the  land  had  banquets  and  feasts  when  they  travelled 
by  that  road. 

From  this  place  the  Captain  Hernando  Pizarro  went  by 
the  same  stages  as  he  came,  until  he  reached  the  city  of 
Caxamalca,  which  he  entered,  with  Chilicuchima,  on  the 
25th  of  May/  1533.  Here  a  thing  was  seen  that  had  never 
been  witnessed  before   since  the  Indies  were    discovered. 


When  Chilicuchima  passed  through  the  gates  of  the  place 
where  his  master  was  imprisoned,  he  took  a  light  load  from 
one  of  the  Indian  porters  and  put  it  on  his  back,  an  example 
which  was  followed  by  many  chiefs  who  accompanied  him. 
Thus  laden,  he  and  the  others  entered  where  their  Lord  was; 
and  when  Chilicuchima  saw  him,  he  raised  his  hands  to  the 
Sun,  and  gave  thanks  that  he  had  been  permitted  to  enjoy 
the  sight.     Then,  with  much  reverence,  and  weeping,  he 

*  One  leading,  by  Huaras,  to  the  coast  road  at  Parmunca  ;  the  other 
being  the  sierra  road  to  Cuzco,  by  Xauxa. 

"  The  modern  Pomabamba. 

'  This  should  be  April.  At  p.  90,  March  is  given  as  the  date.  These 
are  probably  misprints. 


approached  his  Lord^  and  kissed  his  face,  hands,  and  feet. 
The  other  chiefs,  his  companions,  did  the  same,  Atabaliba 
maintained  a  mien  so  majestic  that,  though  there  was  not  a 
man  in  the  kingdom  that  he  loved  more  than  Chilicuchima, 
he  did  not  look  in  his  face  or  take  more  notice  of  him  than 
of  the  vilest  Indians  that  came  into  his  presence.  This 
taking  up  of  a  load  to  enter  the  presence  of  Atabaliba  is  a 
ceremony  which  was  performed  for  all  the  Lords  who  have 
reigned  in  that  land.  I,  Miguel  de  Estete,  the  overseer, 
who  went  on  the  journey  that  the  Captain  Hernando  Pizarro 
undertook,  now  give  this  account  of  all  that  happened. 

Miguel  Estete. 


The  masters  of  the  six  ships  which  were  at  the  port  of 
San  Miguel,  being  unable  to  maintain  their  crews,  had  re- 
quested the  Governor  to  pay  and  despatch  them.  The 
Governor  called  a  Council  for  the  purpose  of  making  the 
necessary  arrangements  and  for  reporting  what  had  hap- 
pened to  his  Majesty.  It  was  decided  that  all  the  gold 
should  be  melted  down  which  had  been  brought  to  Caxa- 
malca  by  order  of  Atabaliba,  as  well  as  all  that  might  arrive 
before  the  melting  was  finished.  As  soon  as  it  was  melted 
and  distributed,  the  Governor  would  not  be  detained  any 
longer,  but  would  proceed  to  form  a  settlement,  in  obedience 
to  the  orders  of  his  Majesty. 

The  publication  of  this  resolution  and  the  commencement 
of  the  melting  took  place  on  the  3rd  of  May,  1533.  After 
ten  days  one  of  three  Christians  who  went  to  the  city  of 
Cuzco  arrived.  He  was  the  public  notary,  and  he  reported 
that  that  city  of  Cuzco  had  been  taken  possession  of  in  the 
name  of  his  Majesty.     He  also  gave  an  account  of  the  road, 


on  which  he  said  there  were  thirty  principal  towns^  without 
counting  Cuzco,  and  many  other  small  villages.  He  said 
that  Cuzco  was  as  large  as  had  been  reported,  and  that  it  is 
situated  on  a  hill  side  near  a  plain ;  that  the  streets  were 
very  regularly  arranged  and  pavedj  and  that  in  the  eight 
days  that  he  had  been  there  he  had  not  been  able  to  see 
everything.  He  saw  a  well-built  house  entirely  plated  with 
gold,  quadrangular,  and  measuring  three  hundred  and  fifty 
paces  from  corner  to  corner.  Of  these  gold  plates  they 
took  down  seven  hundred,  which  together  weighed 
500  pesos.  From  another  house  the  Indians  pulled  off  a 
quantity  weighing  200,000  pesos ;  but,  as  it  was  much  al- 
loyed, having  but  seven  or  eight  carats  the  peso,  they  would 
not  receive  it.  Besides  these  two,  they  did  not  see  any 
other  houses  plated  with  gold ;  but  the  Indians  did  not 
permit  them  to  see  all  the  city.  They  judged  from  what 
they  did  see  that  it  was  very  rich.  They  found  the  Captain 
Quizquiz  in  the  city,  holding  it  for  Atabaliba  with  a  garrison 
of  thirty  thousand  men,  because  it  is  threatened  by  Caribs^ 
and  other  tribes  who  wage  war  against  that  city.  He  re- 
ported many  other  things  that  there  were  in  Cuzco,  and 
that  it  was  well  ordered,  and  that  a  chief  was  coming  with 
the  other  two  Spaniards  with  seven  hundred  plates  of  gold 
and  much  silver  that  was  delivered  to  the  chief  at  Xauxa, 
left  behind  by  Chilicuchima.  The  whole  quantity  of  gold 
collected  by  them  was  one  hundred  and  seventy-eight  loads, 
and  these  loads  were  in  paliqueres,^  each  borne  by  four 
Indians.    They  were  bringing  little  silver,  and  the  gold  was 

*  The  Spaniards  had  very  hazy  ideas  about  the  Caribs  ;  they  used  the 
word  as  a  vague  term  to  apply  to  any  Indians  in  arms,  of  whom  they 
knew  nothing.  The  garrison  at  Cuzco,  commanded  by  Quizquiz,  was 
no  doubt  threatened  by  the  defeated,  but  still  faithful,  troops  of  the 
legitimate  Ynca.    . 

^  This  is  not  a  Spanish  word.  Ternaux  Compans  thinks  that  the 
word  means  a  litter  ;  perhaps  a  corruption  of  the  Indian  word  palkee  or 
palanquin  ;  which  may  have  come  into  use  through  the  Portuguese. 


delivered  to  the  Christians  by  little  and  little,  and  slowly, 
because  it  was  necessary  to  employ  many  Indians,  who  had 
to  go  from  village  to  village  to  collect  it.  He  calculated 
that  the  gold  which  was  on  the  road  would  arrive  at  Caxa- 
malca  in  about  a  month.  It  actually  arrived  on  the  13th 
of  June,  and  consisted  of  two  hundred  loads  of  gold  and 
twenty-five  of  silver.  The  gold  appeared  to  be  of  more 
than  one  hundred  and  thirty  carats.  After  the  arrival  of 
this  first  instalment  another  sixty  loads  of  less  fine  gold 
came  in.  The  greater  part  was  in  plates,  like  the  boards  of 
a  box,  and  three  to  four  'palmos  in  length.  These  had  been 
taken  from  the  walls  of  the  house,  and  .they  had  holes  in 
them,  showing  that  they  had  been  secured  by  nails.  They 
completed  the  founding  and  partitioning  of  all  this  gold  and 
silver  on  the  day  of  Santiago,  the  gold  and  silver  being 
weighed  by  a  Romana}  The  account  was  then  taken,  all 
being  reduced  to  good  gold ;  and  it  was  found  to  make  a 
total  of  326,539  pesos  of  good  gold.^  After  deducting  the 
fees  of  the  founder,  the  Royal  fifth  amounted  to  262,259 
pesos  of  pure  gold.  Of  the  silver  there  were  51,610  marcs, 
of  which  10,121  marcs  of  silver  formed  the  Royal  fifth.^  All 
the  rest,  after  the  Royal  fifths  and  the  fees  of  the  founder 
had  been  deducted,  was  divided  amongst  all  the  conquerors 
who  accompanied  the  Governor.  The  horsemen  each  re- 
ceived 8,880  'pesos  of  gold  and  362  marcs  of  silver.*  The 
foot  soldiers  each  had  4,440  pesos,  and  181  marcs  of  silver, 
some  more  and  some  less,  according  as  the  Governor  con- 
sidered that  each  man  deserved  reward,  with  reference  to 

'  A  steelyard. 

2  The  Governor's  own  share  was  200,000  pesos  of  gold  and  50,000  in 
silver,  besides  the  gold  litter  of  Atahuallpa. 

3  Garcilasso  gives  the  royal  fifth  at  546,250  pesos  of  gold  and  105,750 
pesos  of  silver. 

■•  Garcilasso  says  that  the  shares  of  these  captains  of  cavalry  was 
90,000  pesos  of  gold  and  30,000  of  silver.  The  sixty  men  had  720,000 
pesos  of  gold  and  180,000  in  silver. 



his  services,  position,  and  the  labours  he  had  gone  through.^ 
A  certain  quantity  of  gold,  which  was  set  apart  by  the 
Governor  before  the  partition  took  place,  was  given  to  the 
citizens  of  San  Miguel,  to  those  who  came  with  the  Captain 
Diego  de  Almagro,^  and  to  all  the  merchants  and  sailors 
who  arrived  afterwards.  Thus  everyone  in  the  country  re- 
ceived something;  so  that  it  might  be  called  a  general 
melting,  as  it  was  general  to  all.'''    One  remarkable  thing  in 

'  Four  captains  of  infantry  got  90,000  pesos  of  gold  and  30,000  of 
silver,  and  a  hundred  men  got  900,000  pesos  of  gold  and  135,000  of 

«  Almagro  got  30,000  jtjesos  of  gold  and  10,000  of  silver. ' 
'  The  value  of  the  silver  was  reckoned  at  twenty  per  cent,  of  the  gold. 
A  ducat  was  worth  eleven  rials  and  one  maravedi,  or  375  maravedis. 
100  pesos  of  gold  were  equal  to  120  of  silver,  and  120  pesos  of  silver 
were  equal  to  144  ducats.     Therefore,  100  pesos  of  gold  =  144  ducats. 


The  Governor's  share  of  gold 



„             „           silver 



Three  Captains  of  Cavalry.     Share  of  gold  - 


11                     11                    ) 

,         silver 


Four  Captains  of  Infantry           , 

gold   - 


11                    11                    1 

,         silver 


Sixty  horsemen        -         -            , 

gold  - 

-      1,036,800 

11                     "         "            1 

,         silver 


Hundred  foot  soldiers       -           , 

1         gold  - 

-     1,296,000 

11                11               "1 

,         silver 


The  240  men  of  Almagro             , 

1         gold  - 


11                    11            "            1 

,         silver 


The  Captain  Almagro      -            , 

1         gold  - 


11                 i»                "1 

,         silver 


The  Royal  Fifth 

1         gold  - 


11         11                      "            ' 

,         silver 


Increase  of  the  refined  silver 



Total  ransom  of  Atahua 

-      4,605,670 

Of  this  sum  3,933,000  ducats  was  the  value  of  the  gold,  and  372,670 
ducats  the  value  of  the  silver.  This  may  be  considered  equal  to 
£3,.500,000  of  our  money.    {G.  de  la  Vega,  Ft.  ii,  lib.  i,  cap.  38,  p.  51.) 

In  the  division  of  plunder  our  author,  Francisco  de  Xeres,  as  a  horse- 

98  HIGH    PRICES. 

this  melting  was  that  on  one  day  they  melted  80,000  pesos. 
Usually  the  quantity  was  50,000  to  60,000  pesos  a  day. 
The  melting  was  done  by  the  Indians,  who  have  among 
them  good  silversmiths  and  melters,  and  they  worked  with 
nine  forges. 

I  must  not  omit  to  mention  the  prices  which  have  been 
given  for  provisions  and  other  goods  in  this  country,  though 
some  are  so  high  as  to  be  incredible.  Yet  I  can  say  with 
truth  that  I  saw  it,  and  that  I  bought  some  of  the  things. 
A  horse  was  sold  for  2,500  ptesos,  and  another  for  3,300  pesos. 
The  ordinary  price  of  horses  was  2,500  pesos,  and  they  were 
difficult  to  get  at  that  price.  A  jar  of  wine,  of  three  azum- 
hres,  sold  for  sixty  pesos.  I  gave  forty  pesos  for  two  azum- 
hres.  A  pair  of  high  boots  fetched  thirty  or  forty  pesos,  and 
a  pair  of  shoes  as  much  ;  a  cloak  one  hundred  to  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty  pesos ;  a  sword  forty  to  fifty ;  a  string  of 
garlics  half  a  peso.  All  other  things  were  in  proportion. 
(A  peso  is  as  much  as  a  castellano.)  A  sheet  of  paper  sold 
for  ten  pesos.  I  gave  twelve  pesos  for  half  an  ounce  of 
damaged  saffron.  Much  more  might  be  said  of  the  high 
prices  at  which  everything  was  sold  ;  and  of  the  little  store 
that  was  set  by  gold  and  silver.  If  one  man  owed  any- 
thing to  another,  he  paid  it  in  a  lump  of  gold,  without 
weighing  the  gold,  and  being  quite  indifferent  whether  it 
was  worth  double  the  amount  of  the  debt  or  not.  Those 
who  owed  money  went  from  house  to  house,  followed  by  an 
Indian  laden  with  gold,  and  seeking  out  their  creditors  to 
pay  them. 

Having  related  how  the  melting  and  distributing  of  the 
gold  and  silver  were  finished,  the  wealth  of  the  land,  and  how 
little  store  was  set  by  gold  and  silver,  as  well  by  Spaniards 
as  Indians,  I  will  now  say  something  of  the  place  which 

man,  received  362  marcos  of  silver  and  8880  pesos  of  gold ;  besides  94 
marcos  and  2220  pesos,  to  be  divided  between  himself  and  Pedro  Sancho 
for  Secretary's  work. 

WEALTH    OF    THE    YNCAS.  99 

was  subject  to  the  Cuzco^  and  now  belongs  to  Atabaliba.^ 
They  say  that  it  contained  two  houses  made  of  gold,  and 
that  the  straws  with  which  it  was  roofed  were  all  made  of 
gold.  With  the  gold  that  was  brought  from'  Cuzco,  there 
were  some  straws  made  of  solid  gold,  with  their  spikes,  just 
as  they  would  grow  in  the  fields.  If  I  was  to  recount  all 
the  different  varieties  in  the  shape  of  the  pieces  of  gold,  my 
story  would  never  end.  There  was  a  stool  of  gold  that 
weighed  eight  arrohas.^  There  were  great  fountains  with 
their  pipes,  .through  which  water  flowed  into  a  reservoir  on 
the  same  fountains,  where  there  were  birds  of  different 
kinds,  and  men  drawing  water  from  the  fountain,  all  made 
of  gold.  It  was  also  ascertained  from  Atabaliba  and  Chili- 
cuchima,  and  many  others,  that  in  Xauxa  Atabaliba  had 
sheep  and  shepherds  tending  them,  all  made  of  gold ;  and 
the  sheep  and  shepherds  were  large,  and  of  the  size  that 
they  are  met  with  in  this  land.  These  pieces  belonged  to 
his  father,  and  he  promised  to  give  them  to  the  Spaniards. 
They  relate  wonderful  things  of  the  wealth  of  Atabaliba  and 
his  father. 

Now  I  must  mention  a  thing  which  should  not  be  for- 
gotteni  A  chief,  who  was  Lord  of  Caxamalca,  appeared 
before  the  Governor  and  said  to  him  through  the  inter- 
preters:  "I  would  have  you  to  know  that,  after  Atabaliba 
was  taken  prisoner,  he  sent  to  Quito,  his  native  land,  and 
to  all  the  other  provinces,  with  ^orders  to  collect  troops  to 
march  against  you  and  your  followers,  and  to  kill  you  all; 
and  all  these  troops  are  coming  under  the  command  of  a 
great  captain  called  Lluminabi.^  This  army  is  now  very 
near  to  this  place.     It  will  come  at  night  and  attack  the 

8  The  city  of  Cuzco. 

9  The  tiana  or  throne  of  the  Yncas.  It  fell  to  the  share  of  Francisco 
Pizarro  himself.  According  to  Garcilasso  it  was  worth  25,000  pesos  of 
gold,     (ii,  lib.  i,  cap.  38.) 

'  Rumi-Gaui,  a  general  of  Atahuallpa.  The  word  means  "Stone-eyed." 


camp,  setting  fire  in  all  directions,  and  the  first  they  will 
try  to  kill  will  be  yourself,  and  they  will  deliver  Atabaliba 
out  of  his  prison.  From  Quito  are  coming  two  hundred 
thousand  men  of  war,  and  thirty  thousand  Caribs  who  eat 
human  flesh  ;  and  from  another  province  called  Pacalta,  and 
from  other  parts,  come  a  great  number  of  soldiers/' 

When  the  Governor  heard  this,  he  thanked  the  chief  and 
did  him  much  honour,  and  sent  for  a  clerk  to  put  it  all  down. 
Then  he  made  further  inquiries,  and,  having  taken  the 
statement  to  an  uncle  of  Atabaliba,  to  some  principal  chiefs, 
and  to  some  women,  he  found  that  all  that  the  chief  of  Caxa- 
malca  had  said  was  true. 

The  Governor  then  spoke  to  Atabaliba,  saying :  "  What 
treason  is  this  that  you  have  prepared  for  me  ?     For  me 
who  have  treated  you  with  honour,  like  a  brother,  and  have 
trusted  in  your  words  !"    Then  he  told  him  all  the  informa- 
tion he  had  received.     Atabaliba  answered,  saying  :  "  Are 
you  laughing  at  me  ?     You  are  always  making  jokes  when 
you  speak  to  me.     What  am  I,  and  all  my  people,  that  we 
should  trouble  such  valiant  men  as  you  are  ?     Do  not  talk 
such  nonsense  to  me.''    He  said  all  this  without  betraying  a 
sign  of  anxiety  ;  but  he  laughed  the  better  to  conceal  his 
evil  design,  and  practised  many  other  arts  such  as  would 
suggest  themselves  to  a  quick-witted  man.     After  he  was  a 
prisoner,  the  Spaniards  who  heard  him  were  astounded  to 
find  so  much  wisdom  in  a  barbarian.    The  Governor  ordered 
a  chain  to  be  brought,  which  was  fastened  round  the  neck 
of  Atabaliba.     He  then  sent  two  Indians  as   spies  to  find 
out  where  this  army  was,  for  it  was  reported  to  be   only 
seven   leagues    from    Caxamalca.     He  wished  to  ascertain 
whether  it  was  in  such  a  position  as  that  a  hundred  cavalry 
could  be  sent  against  it.      But  it  was   reported  that  the 
enemy  was  posted  in  a  very  rugged  position,  and  that  he 
was  approaching  nearer.     As  soon  as  the  chains  were  put 
upon    Atabaliba   he   had    sent    a   messenger   to    his  great 


Captain  saying  that  the  Governor  had  killed  him,  and  on 
receiving  this  news  the  Captain  and  his  army  began  to  re- 
treat. But  Atabaliba  sent  other  messengers  after  the  first, 
ordering  them  to  advance  without  delay,  and  sending  orders 
how  and  in  what  direction  to  march,  and  at  what  hour  to 
attack  the  camp  ;  adding  that  he  was  still  alive,  but  that  if 
they  delayed  he  would  be  killed. 

The  Governor  knew  all  this,  and  he  ordered  a  careful  watch 
to  be  kept  in  the  camp.  The  cavalry  were  to  go  the  rounds 
three  times  during  the  night ;  fifty  horsemen  going  each 
round,  and  at  the  rounds  of  daybreak  the  whole  hundred  and 
fifty  horsemen.  During  these  nights  the  Governor  and  his 
Captains  never  slept,  but  looked  after  the  rounds,  and  saw 
that  all  were  on  the  alert.  The  soldiers  who  slept  during 
the  watch  did  not  let  go  their  arms,  and  their  horses  were 
kept  saddled.  This  watchfulness  was  continued  in  the  camp 
until,  at  sunset  one  Saturday  evening  two  Indians,  of  those 
who  served  the  Spaniards,  came  in  and  reported  that  they 
had  fled  from  the  hostile  army,  which  was  only  three  leagues 
distant,  and  that  on  that  or  the  next  night  the  camp  of  the 
Christians  would  be  attacked ;  because  they  were  marching 
rapidly  in  obedience  to  orders  from  Atabaliba. 

Then  the  Governor,  with  the  concurrence  of  the  officers 
of  his  Majesty,  and  of  the  captains  and  persons  of  expe- 
rience, sentenced  Atabaliba  to  death. ^  His  sentence  was 
that,  for  the  treason  he  had  committed,  he  should  die  by 
burning,  unless  he  became  a  Christian ;  and  this  execution 
was  for  the  security  of  the  Christians,  the  good  of  the  whole 
land,  and  to  secure  its  conquest  and  pacification.  For  on 
the  death  of  Atabaliba  all  his  troops  would  presently  dis- 

"^  "  Atabalipa  wept,  and  said  that  they  should  not  kill  him,  that  there 
was  not  an  Indian  in  ihe  land  who  would  move  without  his  orders,  and 
that,  he  being  prisoner,  what  could  they  fear  ?  I  saw  the  Marquis  weep 
with  sorrow,  at  not  being  able  to  spare  his  life,  by  reason  of  the  risk  of 
his  escaping." — Pedro  Pizarro. 


persGj  and  would  not  have  the  courage  to  attack  us  or  to 
obey  his  orders. 

They  brought  out  Atabaliba  to  execution;  and,  when  he 
came  into  the  square,  he  said  he  would  become  a  Christian. 
The  Governor  was  informed,  and  ordered  him  to  be  baptized. 
The  ceremony  was  performed  by  the  very  reverend  Father 
Friar  Vicente  de  Yalverde.  The  Governor  then  ordered 
that  he  should  not  be  burnt,  but  that  he  should  be  fastened 
to  a  pole  in  the  open  space  and  strangled.  This  was  done, 
and  the  body  was  left  until  the  morning  of  the  next  day, 
when  the  Monks,  and  the  Governor  with  the  other  Spaniards, 
conveyed  it  into  the  church,  where  it  was  interred  with  much 
solemnity,  and  with  all  the  honours  that  could  be  shown  it.^ 

3  The  pretext  for  murdering  Atahuallpa  was  false,  and  Xeres,  the 
murderer's  secretary,  knew  that  it  was  false  when  he  wrote  this  narrative. 
It  was  pretended  that  an  Indian  army  was  assembled  at  Huamachuco, 
and  Hernando  de  Soto,  who  was  a  gentleman  and  no  murderer,  was  sent, 
with  a  small  force,  ostensibly  to  ascertain  the  truth  of  the  report,  but 
really  to  get  him  out  of  the  way.  lie  was  accompanied  by  Rodrigo 
Orgonez,  Pedi'o  Ortiz  de  Orue,  Miguel  de  Estete,  and  Lope  Velez. 
Hernando  Pizarro  had  already  departed  for  Spain,  to  report  the  dis- 
covery and  with  good  store  of  gold. 

Then  Pizarro,  Almagro,  and  the  worst  of  the  gang,  with  Friar  Val- 
verde,  determined  to  murder  Atahuallpa,  and  thus  get  rid  of  an  obstacle 
in  their  way.  There  was  a  mock  trial.  Pizarro  and  Almagro  were  the 
Judges,  the  Clerk  of  the  Court  was  Sancho  de  Cuellar,  and  Filipillo, 
who  had  a  malignant  spite  against  Atahuallpa,  was  interpreter.  The 
indictment  was  drawn  up  in  the  form  of  twelve  questions : — 

1.  Did  you  know  Huayna  Ccapac,  and  how  many  wives  had  he? 

2.  Was  Huascar  the  legitimate  heir,  and  Atahuallpa  a  bastard? 

3.  Had  the  Ynca  other  sons? 

4.  Was  Atahuallpa  the  heir  by  inheritance,  or  usurpation  ? 

6.  Was  Huascar  deprived  by  his  father's  will,  or  was  he  declared  heir? 

6.  Was  Huascar  murdered  by  order  of  Atahuallpa  ? 

7.  Was  Atahuallpa  an  idolater,  and  did  he  enforce  human  sacrifices? 

8.  Had  Atahuallpa  waged  unjust  wars  ? 

9.  Had  Atahuallpa  many  concubines? 

10.  Had  Atahuallpa  received  and  spent  tribute,  since  the  arrival  of 
the  Spaniards? 


Such  was  the  end  of  this  man,  who  had  been  so  cruel.  He 
died  with  great  fortitude,  and  without  shewing  any  feeling, 
saying   that   he    entrusted   his  children   to   the   Governor. 

11.  Had  Atahuallpa  given  treasure  to  his  relations  and  captains,  since 

the  Spaniards  came  ? 

12.  Had  Atahuallpa  ordered  troops  to  be  assembled  to  make  war  on 

the  Spaniards  ? 

Ten  witnesses  were  examined,  seven  of  whom  were  servants  of  the 
Spaniards,  and  Filipillo  turned  their  words  into  what  meaning  he  pleased. 
One  witness,  a  captain  named  Quespi,  suspected  the  interpreter,  and 
would  only  answer  Ari  (Yes)  and  Manan  (No),  nodding  and  shaking 
his  head,  that  all  might  understand. 

The  few  men  of  honour  and  respectability,  then  at  Caxamarca,  pro- 
tested against  the  murder.  Their  names  are  more  worthy  of  remem- 
brance than  those  of  the  thirteen  who  crossed  the  line  at  the  isle  of  Gallo. 
They  were  :  besides,  1.  Hernando  de  Soto. 

2.  Francisco  de  Chaves,")  brothers,  natives 

3.  Diego  de  Chaves,       |       of  Truxillo. 

4.  Francisco  de  Fuentes. 

5.  Pedro  de  Ayala. 

6.  Diego  de  Mora. 

7.  Francisco  Moscoso. 

8.  Hernando  de  Haro. 

9.  Pedro  de  Mendoza. 

10.  Juan  de  Herrada. 

11.  Alonzo  de  Avila. 

12.  Bias  de  Atienza. 

They  represented  that  Pizarro  had  no  jurisdiction  over  a  foreign  king, 
like  Atahuallpa  ;  that  to  kill  a  king  who  was  a  prisoner,  and  whose 
ransom  they  had  taken,  would  bring  shame  and  dishonour  on  the  Spanish 
name  ;  that  if  he  had  done  wrong  the  Emperor  should  judge  him  ;  and 
they  appealed  from  the  iniquitous  sentence  to  the  justice  of  the  Emperor, 
naming  Juan  de  Herrada,  one  of  their  number,  as  the  protector  of  the 
king  Atahuallpa.  But  they  were  overruled,  and  the  murder  was  perpe- 
trated. Two  days  afterwards  Hernando  de  Soto  returned,  and  reported 
that  there  was  no  Indian  army  near,  and  no  insurrection.  He  found  the 
Governor,  by  way  of  mourning,  wearing  a  great  felt  hat  slouched  over 
his  eyes.  He  was  ju.stly  indignant  at  the  murder ;  which  Pizarro  was 
unable  to  defend.  He  said:  "  Sir,  you  have  done  ill.  It  would  have 
been  right  to  have  waited  for  our  return ;  for  the  accusation  against  Ata- 
baliba  is  false ;  no  armed  men  have  been  assembled."  The  Governor 
answered :  "  Now  I  see  that  I  have  been  deceived."     Pizarro  blamed 


When  they  took  his  body  to  be  buried  there  was  loud 
mourning  among  the  women  and  servants  of  his  household. 
He  died  on  Saturday,  at  the  same  hour  that  he  was  taken 

Valverde  the  Monk,  and  Riquelme  the  Royal  Treasurer,  who,  he  said, 
had  urged  hun  to  commit  the  crime  ;  and  there  were  mutual  recrimina- 

Soon  afterwards,  when  the  Spaniards  left  Cassamarca  and  were  march- 
ing on  Cuzco,  Titu  Atauchi,  the  brother  of  Atahuallpa,  attacked  them 
at  Tocto,  in  the  province  of  Huayllas,  with  six  thousand  men,  and  cap- 
tured eight  Spaniards.  Among  his  prisoners  were  Sancho  de  Cuellar, 
Francisco  de  Chaves,  Hernando  de  Haro,  Alonzo  de  Alarcon,  and  others. 
The  Ynca  Prince  took  them  to  Cassamarca,  which  place  had  then  been 
abandoned  by  the  Spaniards.  Cuellar,  who  had  been  Clerk  to  the 
Court  at  the  mock  trial  of  Atahuallpa,  got  his  deserts.  He  was  publicly 
executed  in  the  square  of  Cassamarca,  at  the  same  pole  against  which 
the  Ynca  was  strangled.  Alarcon,  whose  leg  was  broken,  was  carefully 
tended  ;  while  Chaves  and  Haro,  who  had  protested  against  the  murder 
of  Atahuallpa,  were  treated  with  the  greatest  kindness  by  the  Indians. 
Prince  Titu  Atauchi  made  a  treaty  with  them,  in  which  it  was  stipulated 
that  the  Spaniards  and  Indians  should  be  friends,  that  Manco  (the  legi- 
timate son  of  Huayna  Ccapac)  should  succeed  to  the  llautu  and  that  all 
the  Ynca  laws  in  favour  of  the  people,  which  were  not  opposed  to 
Christianity,  should  be  observed.  He  then  set  Chaves  and  his  comrades 
free,  with  many  good  wishes ;  and  they  went  to  Cuzco  to  try  to  get  the 
treaty  ratified  by  Pizarro,  but  without  success.  Titu  Atauchi,  who  was 
&  brave,  generous,  and  able  Prince,  unfortunately  died  very  soon  after- 

It  would  be  interesting  to  trace  the  fate  of  the  twelve  honourable  men 
who  protested  against  the  murder  of  Atahuallpa. 

Hernando  de  Soto,  as  is  well  known,  abandoned  Peru  and  its  cruel 
conquerors,  discovered  Florida,  and  found  a  grave  in  the  bed  of  the 

Francisco  de  Chaves,  a  native  of  Truxillo,  was  afterwards  employed 
in  reducing  the  Conchucos.  He  was  murdered  at  Lima  in  1541,  in  at- 
tempting to  defend  the  staircase  against  the  assassins  of  Pizarro.  Zarate 
says  that  when  he  died  he  was  the  most  important  personage  in  Peru, 
next  to  Pizarro. — Hist,  del  Peru,  lib.  iv,  cap.  8. 

Diego  de  Mora  settled  at  the  new  city,  called  Truxillo,  on  the  coast 
of  Peru.  Gasca  made  him  a  Captain  of  Cavalry,  and  we  last  hear  of 
him  as  receiving  the  appointment  of  Corregidor  of  Lima,  for  the  Royal 
Audience,  during  the  rebellion  of  Giron. 

Juan  de  Herrada  was  a  staunch  follower  of  Almagro.  When  that 
Captain  made  his  expedition  to  Chile,  his  intimate  friend  Herrada  was 


prisoner  and  defeated.  Some  said  that  it  was  for  his  sins 
that  he  died  on  the  day  and  hour  that  he  was  seized.  Thus 
he  was  punished  for  the  great  evils  and  cruelties  that  he 
had  inflicted  upon  his  vassals ;  for  all,  with  one  voice,  de- 
clare that  he  was  the  greatest  and  most  cruel  butcher  that 
had  been  seen  among  men;  that  for  a  very  slight  cause  he 
would  destroy  a  village,  such  as  some  trivial  fault  com- 
mitted by  a  single  man  ;  and  that  he  killed  ten  thousand 

left  behind  at  Ciizco,  to  bring  reinforcements.  Five  months  afterwards 
Herrada  set  out  with  more  men,  and,  after  enduring  terrible  hardships, 
reached  Copiapo  in  Chile,  returning  with  Almagro  by  the  desert  of 
Atacama.  He  conveyed  to  Almagro  the  Royal  Provision,  which  granted 
that  Captain  one  hundred  leagues  of  country  beyond  the  jurisdiction  of 
Pizarro.  This  Provision  was  brought  out  from  Spain  by  Hernando 
Pizarro,  and  the  dispute  as  to  the  position  of  the  frontier  line  led  to  the 
civil  war  and  the  death  of  Almagro. 

Bias  de  Atienza  is  enumerated  by  Balboa  as  one  of  the  heroic  adven- 
turers who  crossed  the  line  with  Pizarro  at  the  Isle  of  Gallo.  (See  note, 
p.  9.)  He  afterwards  settled  at  Truxillo,  on  the  Peruvian  coast.  But 
we  hear  of  him  in  still  earlier  days.  When  Vasco  Nuiiez  came  in  sight 
of  the  South  Sea  in  1513,  he  sent  out  three  scouting  parties  to  explore, 
under  Francisco  Pizarro,  Juan  de  Escaray,  and  Alonzo  Martin.  The 
latter  found  a  canoe  on  the  beach,  and,  stepping  into  it,  called  his  men 
to  witness  that  he  was  the  first  European  who  ever  embarked  on  the 
South  Sea.  His  example  was  followed  by  Bias  de  Atienza,  who  cried 
out  that  he  was  the  second,  {flerrera^  Dec.  i,  lib.  x,  cap.  2.)  His 
daughter  Inez  de  Atienza,  the  widow  of  Pedro  de  Arcos  of  Piura,  was 
beloved  by  Pedro  de  Ursua,  whom  she  accompanied  on  his  expedition  to 
discover  El  Dorado  and  Oraagua  in  1560.  After  his  murder  she  became 
the  mistress  of  Lorenzo  Salduendo,  one  of  the  pirates,  and  was  herself 
murdered  by  the  notorious  pirate  Aguirre.  (See  Search  for  El  Dorado^ 
p.  85.)  A  certain  Friar  Bias  de  Atienza  published  a  book  at  Lima,  en- 
titled Relacion  de  los  Religiosos^  in  1617  ;  and  there  was  a  Missionary 
named  Juan  de  Atienza,  who  died  at  Lima  in  1592.  These  were  pro- 
bably sons  of  the  Conqueror  and  brothers  of  the  lady  Inez,  (^Sol  del 
Nuevo  Mundo,  p.  69.) 

I  have  not  been  able  to  discover  the  subsequent  history  of  any  of  the 
other  denouncers  of  the  murder  of  Atahuallpa.  Except  Francisco  de 
Chaves,  Francisco  de  Fuentes,  and  Pedro  de  Mendoza,  I  find  none  in 
the  list  of  first  conquerors  who  received  shares  of  Atahuallpa's  ransom, 
so  that  the  rest  must  have  come  with  Almagro. 

106  A    COMET. 

persons,  and  held  all  the  country  by  tyranny,  so  that  he  was 
very  heartily  detested  by  all  the  inhabitants. 

Soon  afterwards  the  Governor  took  another  son  of  old 
Cuzco,  named  Atabaliba,  who  had  shown  a  desire  to  be 
friendly  to  the  Spaniards,  and  placed  him  in  the  lordship, 
in  presence  of  the  chiefs  and  lords  of  the  surrounding  dis- 
tricts, and  of  many  other  -Indians.*  He  ordered  them  to 
receive  him  as  their  lord,  and  to  obey  him  as  they  had 
obeyed  Atabaliba ;  Tor  that  he  was  their  proper  lord,  being 
legitimate  son  of  old  Cuzco.  They  all  answered  that  they 
would  receive  him  as  their  lord,  and  obey  him  as  the 
Governor  had  ordered. 

Now  I  wish  to  -mention  a  notable  thing.  It  is,  that  twenty 
days  before  this  happened,  and  before  there  were  any 
tidings  of  the  army  that  Atabaliba  had  ordered  to  be 
assembled,  it  happened  that  Atabaliba  was,  one  night,  very 
cheerful  with  some  Spaniards  with  whom  he  was  conversing. 
Suddenly  there  appeared  a  sign  in  the  heavens,  in  the 
direction  of  Cuzco,  like  a  fiery  comet,  which  lasted  during 
the  greater  part  of  the  night.  When  Atabaliba  saw  this 
sign  he  said  that  a  great  lord  would  very  soon  have  to  die 
in  that  land.^ 

When  the  Governor  had  placed  the  younger  Atabaliba  in 
the  state  and  lordship  of  that  land  (as  we  have  mentioned) 
the  Governor  told  him  that  he  must  communicate  to  him 
the  orders  of  his  Majesty,  and  what  he  must  do  to  becom^ 
his  vassal.  Atabaliba  replied  that  he  must  retire  during 
four  days,  without  speaking  to  anyone,  for  such  was   the 

*  Herrera  says  he  was  a  son  of  Atahuallpa,  named  Toparpa.  But 
this  is  not  an  Ynca  name  at  all.  He  died  soon  afterwards.  (Dec.  v, 
lib.  ill,  cap.  5,  p.  59.) 

*  Garcilasso  says  it  was  a  greenish-black  comet,  nearly  as  thick  as  a 
man.  It  was  seen  in  July  or  August,  1533,  and  is  certainly  the  one  ob- 
served by  AppiaUj  according  to  Humboldt.  On  July  21st,  1533,  standing 
high  in  the  north,  near  the  constellation  of  Perseus,  it  represented  the 
sword  which  Perseus  holds  in  his  right  hand. 

RETURN    OP    SICK    AND    WOUNDED.  107 

custom  among  them  wlien  a  Lord  died,  that  his  successor 
might  be  feared  and  obeyed,  and  afterwards  all  yield 
obedience  to  him.  So  he  was  in  retirement  for  four  days, 
and  afterwards  the  Governor  arranged  conditions  of  peace 
with  him,  to  the  sound  of  trumpets,  and  the  royal  standard 
was  put  into  his  hands.  He  received  and  held  it  up  for  the 
Emperor  our  Lord,  thus  becoming  his  vassal.  Then  all  the 
principal  lords  and  chiefs,  who  were  present,  joyfully  re- 
ceived him  as  their  lord,  kissed  his  hand  and  cheek,  and, 
turning  their  faces  to  the  sun,  gave  thanks  with  joined 
hands,  for  having  been  granted  a  native  ruler.  Thus  was 
this  lord  received  in  the  place  of  Atabaliba,  and  presently 
he  put  on  a  very  rich  fringe,  fsecured  round  his  head  and 
descending  over  the  forehead,  so  as  almost  to  cover  his  eyes. 
'Among  these  people  this  is  the  crown  which  he  who  is 
Lord  of  the  lordship  of  Cuzco  wears,  and  so  it  was  worn  by 

After  all  this,  some  of  the  Spaniards  who  had  conquered 
the  land,  chiefly  those  who  had  been  there  a  long  time,  and 
others  who  were  worn  out  with  illness  or  unable  to  serve  by 
reason  of  their  wounds,  besought  leave  from  the  Governor 
to  depart  with  the  gold,  silver,  and  precious  stones  that  had 
fallen  to  their  share,  and  to  return  to  their  homes.  Per- 
mission was  granted,  and  some  of  them  went  with  Hernando 
Pizarro,  the  brother  of  the  Governor.  Others  received  per- 
mission afterwards,  seeing  that  ne^v  men  continued  to  re- 
sort to  this  land,  drawn  thither  by  the  fame  of  its  riches. 
The  Governor  gave  some  sheep  and  Indians  to  the  Spaniards 
who  had  obtained  leave  to  go  home,  to  carry  their  gold  and 
silver  and  clothes  to  the  town  of  San  Miguel.  On  the  road 
some  of  them  lost  gold  and  silver  to  the  amount  of  more 
than  25,000  castellanos,  because  the  sheep  ran  away  with 
the  gold  and  silver,  and  some  of  the  Indians  also  fled.  On 
this  journey  they  suffered  much  hunger  and  thirst,  and 
many  hardships  from  a  want  of  people  to  carry  their  loads. 


From  the  city  of  Cuzco  to  the  port  the  distance  is  nearly 
two  hundred  leagues.  At  last  they  embarked  and  went  to 
Panama,  and  thence  to  Nombre  de  Dios,  where  they  again 
embarked,  and  our  Lord  conducted  them  to  Seville,  at 
which  port  four  ships  have  arrived,  up  to  the  present  time, 
which  brought  the  following  quantity  of  gold  and  silver  : — 

On  the  5th  of  December,  1534,  the  first  of  these  four 
ships  arrived  at  the  city  of  Seville.  In  her  was  the  Captain 
Christoval  de  Mena,  who  brought  8000  pesos  of  gold  and 
950  marcs  of  silver.  There  was  also  on  board  a  reverend 
clergyman,  a  native  of  Seville,  named  Juan  de  Losa,  who 
brought  6000  "pesos  of  gold  and  eighty  marcs  of  silver.  Be- 
side these  quantities,  38,946  pesos  arrived  in  that  ship. 

In  the  year  1534,  on  the  9th  of  January,  the  second  ship 
arrived,  named  the  Santa  Maria  de  Campo,  with  the  Captain 
Hernando  Pizarro  on  board,  brother  of  Francisco  Pizarro,  the 
Governor  and  Captain-General  of  New  Castillo.  In  this  ship 
there  came,  for  his  Majesty,  153,000  pesos  of  gold  and  5048 
marcs  of  silver.  Besides  this,  several  passengers  and  private 
persons  brought  310,000  pesos  of  gold  and  13,500  marcs  of 
silver.  This  treasure  came  in  bars  and  planks,  and  in  pieces 
of  gold  and  silver  enclosed  in  large  boxes. 

In  addition  to  all  this,  the  ship  brought,  for  his  Majesty, 
thirty-eight  vases  of  gold  and  forty-eight  of  silver,  among 
which  there  was  an  eagle  of  silver.  In  its  body  were 
fitted  two  vases  and  two  large  pots,  one  of  gold  and 
the  other  of  silver,  each  of  which  was  capable  of  contain- 
ing a  cow  cut  into  pieces.  There  were  also  two  sacks 
of  gold,  each  capable  of  holding  two  fanegas  of  wheat ;  an 
idol  of  gold,  the  size  of  a  child  four  years  old ;  and  two 
small  di'ums.  The  other  vases  were  of  gold  and  silver,  each 
one  capable  of  holding  two  arrohas  and  more.  In  the  same 
ship  passengers  brought  home  forty-four  vases  of  silver  and 
four  of  gold. 

This  treasure  was  landed  on  the  mole  and  conveyed  to 

RETURN    OP    THE    AUTHOR    TO    SPAIN.  109 

the  Gasa  de  Contratacion,  the  vases  being  carried,  and  the 
rest  in  twenty-six  boxes,  a  pair  of  bullocks  drawing  a  cart 
containing  two  boxes. 

On  the  3rd  of  July  in  the  same  year,  three  other  ships 
arrived.  The  master  of  one  was  Francisco  Rodriguez,  and 
of  the  other  Francisco  Pabon.  They  brought,  for  passen- 
gers and  private  persons,  146,518  pesos  of  gold  and  30,609 
marcs  of  silver. 

Without  counting  the  above  vases  and  pieces  of  gold  and 
silver,  the  total  amount  of  gold  brought  by  these  four  ships 
was  708,580  pesos,  a  peso  of  gold  being  equal  to  a  castellano. 
Each  'peso  is  commonly  valued  at  450  maravedis ;  so  that, 
taking  all  the  gold,  except  vases  and  other  pieces,  that  was 
registered  in  these  four  ships,  it  would  be  worth  318,860,000 

The  silver  was  49,008  marcs.  Each  marc  is  equal  to  eight 
ounces,  which,  counted  at  2210  maravedis,  makes  the  total 
value  of  the  silver  108,307,680  maravedis. 

One  of  the  last  two  ships  that  arrived,  in  which  Francisco 
E-odriguez  was  master,  belonged  to  Francisco  de  Xeres,  a 
native  of  the  town  of  Seville,  who  wrote  this  narrative  by 
order  of  the  Governor  Francisco  Pizarro,  being  in  the  pro- 
vince of -New  Castille,  in  the  city  of  Caxamalca,  as  Secre- 
tary to  the  Governor. 

Praise  to  God. 







NOVEMBER  1533. 



To  the  Magnificent  Lords,  the  Judges  of  the  Royal  Audience 
of  His  Majesty  who  reside  in  the  city  of  Santo  Domingo. 

Magnificent  Loeds^ — I  arrived  in  this  port  of  Yaguana  on 
my  way  to  Spain,  by  order  of  the  Governor  Francisco 
Pizarro,  to  inform  his  Majesty  of  what  has  happened  in  that 
government  of  Peru,  to  give  an  account  of  the  country,  and 
of  its  present  condition  j  and,  as  I  believe  that  those  who 
come  to  this  city  give  your  worships  inconsistent  accounts, 
it  has  seemed  well  to  me  to  write  a  summary  of  what  has 
taken  place,  that  you  may  be  informed  of  the  truth,  from 
the  time  that  Ysasaga  came  from  that  land,  by  whom  your 
worships  will  have  been  apprised  of  what  had  taken  place 
up  to  the  time  of  his  departure. 

The  Governor,  in  the  name  of  his  Majesty,  founded  a  town 
near  the  sea  coast,  which  was  called  San  Miguel.  It  is 
twenty-five  leagues  from  that  point  of  Tumbez.  Having 
left  citizens  there,  and  assigned  the  Indians  in  the  district 
to  them,  he  set  out  with  sixty  horse  and  ninety  foot,  in  search 
of  the  town  of  Caxamalca,  at  which  place  he  was  informed 
that  Atabaliva  then  was,  the  son  of  old  Cuzco,^  and  brother 
of  him  who  is  now  Lord  of  that  land.^     Between  the  two 

1  Ynca  Huayna  Ccapac. 

2  The  puppet  set  up  by  Francisco  Pizarro,  when  he  murdered  Atahu- 
allpa,  and  who  died  two  months  afterwards. 


brothers^  there  had  been  a  very  fierce  war^  and  this  Ataba- 
liva  had  conquered  the  land  as  far  a^  he  then  was,  which, 
from  the  point  whence  he  started,  was  a  hundred  and  fifty 
leagues.  After  seven  or  eight  marches,  a  Captain  of  Ata- 
baliva  came  to  the  Governor,  and  said  that  his  Lord  had 
heard  of  his  arrival  and  rejoiced  greatly  at  it,  having  a  strong 
desire  to  see  the  Christians ;  and  when  he  had  been  two 
days  with  the  Governor  he  said  that  he  wished  to  go  for- 
ward and  tell  the  news  to  his  Lord,  and  that  another  would 
soon  be  on  the  road  with  a  present,  as  a  token  of  peace. 
The  Governor  continued  his  march  until  he  came  to  a  town 
called  La  Ramada.^  Up  to  that  point  all  the  land  was  flat, 
while  all  beyond  was  very  rugged,  and  obstructed  by  very 
difficult  passes.  When  he  saw  that  the  messenger  from 
Atabaliva  did  not  return,  he  wished  to  obtain  intelligence 
from  some  Indians  who  had  come  from  Caxamalca  ;  so  they 
were  tortured,^  and  they  then  said  that  they  had  heard  that 
Atabaliva  was  waiting  for  the  Governor  in  the  mountains  to 
give  him  battle.  The  Governor  then  ordered  the  troops  to  ad- 
vance, leaving  the  rear  guard  in  the  plain.  The  rest  ascended, 
and  the  road  was  so  bad  that,  in  truth,  if  they  had  been 
waiting  for  us,  either  in  this  pass  or  in  another  that  we  came 
to  on  the  road  to  Caxamalca,  they  could  very  easily  have 
stopped  us  ;  for,  even  by  exerting  all  our  skill,  we  could 
not  have  taken  the  horses  by  the  roads  ;  and  neither  horse 
nor  foot  can  cross  those  mountains  except  by  the  roads. 
The  distance  across  them  to  Caxamalca  is  twenty  leagues. 

When  we  were  half-way,  messengers  arrived  from  Ata- 
baliva, and  brought  provisions  to  the  Governor.     They  said 

'  Ynca  Huascar  and  Atahuallpa. 

<  A  hut  covered  with  the  branches  of  trees.  Apparently  a  name  given 
by  the  Spaniards  to  the  place  at  which  they  halted,  at  the  foot  of  the 

»  This  was  the  regular  custom  of  Hernando  Pizarro,  to  torture  the 
Indians  before  asking  them  questions.  The  consequence  was,  that  he 
was  told  lies,  and  as  in  this  instance,  as  will  be  seen  further  on. 


that  Atabaliva  was  waiting  for  him  at  Caxamalca,  wishing 
to  be  his  friend ;  and  that  he  wished  the  Governor  to  know 
that  his  captainSj  whom  he  has  sent  to  the  war  of  Cuzco, 
had  taken  his  brother  prisoner,  that  they  would  reach  Caxa- 
malca  within  two  days,  and  that  all  the  territory  of  his  father 
now  belonged  to  him.  The  Governor  sent  back  to  say  that 
he  rejoiced  greatly  at  this  news,  and  that  if  there  was  any 
Lord  who  refused  to  submit,  he  would  give  assistance  and 
subjugate  him.  Two  days  afterwards  the  Governor  came  in 
sight  of  Caxamalca,  and  he  met  Indians  with  food.  He  put 
the  troops  in  order,  and  marched  to  the  town.  Atabaliva 
was  not  there,  but  was  encamped  on  the  plain,  at  a  distance 
of  a  league,  with  all  his  people  in  tents.  When  the  Gover- 
nor saw  that  Atabaliva  did  not  come,  he  sent  a  Captain,'with 
fifteen  horsemen,  to  speak  to  Atabaliva,  saying  that  he 
would  not  assign  quarters  to  the  Christians  until  he  knew 
where  it  was  the  pleasure  of  Atabaliva  that  they  should 
lodge,  and  he  desired  him  to  come  that  they  might  be 
friends.  Just  then  I  went  to  speak  to  the  Governor,  touch- 
ing the  orders  in  case  the  Indians  made  a  night  attack.  He 
told  me  that  he  had  sent  men  to  seek  an  interview  with 
Atabaliva.  I  told  him  that,  out  of  the  sixty  cavalry  we  had, 
there  might  be  some  men  who  were  not  dexterous  on  horse- 
back, and  some  unsound  horses,  and  that  it  seemed  a  mis- 
take to  pick  out  fifteen  of  the  best;  for,  if  Atabaliva 
should  attack  them,  their  numbers  were  insufficient  for  de- 
fence, and  any  reverse  might  lead  to  a  great  disaster.  He, 
therefore,  ordered  me  to  follow  with  other  twenty  horsemen, 
and  to  act  according  to  circumstances. 

When  I  arrived  I  found  the  other  horsemen  near  the 
camp  of  Atabaliva,  and  that  their  officer  had  gone  to  speak 
with  him.  I  left  my  men  there  also,  and  advanced  with  two 
horsemen  to  the  lodging  of  Atabaliva,  and  the  Captain  an- 
nounced my  approach  and  who  I  was.  I  then  told  Ataba- 
liva that  the  Governor  had  sent  me  to  visit  him,  and  to  ask 


him  to  come  that  they  might  be  friends.  He  replied  that  a 
Cacique  of  the  town  of  San  Miguel  had  sent  to  tell  him 
that  we  were  bad  people  and  not  good  for  war,  and  that  he 
himself  had  killed  some  of  us,  both  men  and  horses.  I  an- 
swered that  those  people  of  San  Miguel  were  like  women, 
and  that  one  horse  was  enough  for  the  whole  of  them ;  that, 
when  he  saw  us  fight,  he  would  know  what  we  were  like ; 
that  the  Governor  had  a  great  regard  for  him  :  that  if  he 
had  any  enemy  he  had  only  to  say  so,  and  that  the  Governor 
would  send  to  conquer  him.  He  said  that,  four  marches 
from  that  spot,  there  were  some  very  rebellious  Indians  who 
would  not  submit  to  him,  and  that  the  Christians  might  go 
there  to  help  his  troops.  I  said  that  the  Governor  would 
send  ten  horsemen,  who  would  suffice  for  the  whole  country, 
and  that  his  Indians  were  unnecessary,  except  to  search  for 
those  who  concealed  themselves.  He  smiled  like  a  man 
who  did  not  think. so  much  of  us.  The  Captain  told  me 
that,  until  I  came,  he  had  not  been  able  to  get  him  to  speak, 
but  that  one  of  his  chiefs  had  answered  for  him,  while  he 
always  kept  his  head  down.  He  was  seated  in  all  the 
majesty  of  command,  surrounded  by  all  his  women,  and 
with  many  chiefs  near  him.  Before  coming  to  his  presence 
there  was  another  group  of  chiefs,  each  standing  according 
to  his  rank.  At  sunset  I  said  that  I  wished  to  go,  and 
asked  him  to  tell  me  what  to  say  to  the  Governor.  He  re- 
plied that  he  would  come  to  see  him  on  the  following  morn- 
ing, that  he  would  lodge  in  three  great  chambers  in  the 
courtyard,  and  that  the  centre  one  should  be  set  apart  for 

That  night  a  good  look-out  was  kept.  In  the  morning 
he  sent  messengers  to  put  off  his  visit  until  the  afternoon ; 
and  these  messengers,  in  conversing  with  some  Indian  girla 
in  the  service  of  the  Christians,  who  were  their  relations, 
told  them  to  run  away  because  Atabaliva  was  coming  that 
afternoon  to  attack  the  Christians  and  kill  them.     Among 


the  messengers  there  came  that  Captaia  who  had  already- 
met  the  Governor  on  the  road.  He  told  the  Governor  that 
his  Lord  Atabaliva  said  that,  as  the  Christians  had  come 
armed  to  his  camp,  he  also  would  come  armed.  The  Go- 
vernor replied  that  he  might  come  as  he  liked.  Atabaliva 
set  out  from  his  camp  at  noon,  and  when  he  came  to  a  place 
which  was  about  half  a  quarter  of  a  league  from  Caxamalca, 
he  stopped  until  late  in  the  afternoon.  There  he  pitched 
his  tents,  and  formed  his  men  in  three  divisions.  The  whole 
road  was  full  of  men,  and  they  had  not  yet  left  off  marching 
out  of  the  camp.  The  Governor  had  ordered  his  troops  to 
be  distributed  in  the  three  halls  {galpones)^  which  were  in 
the  open  courtyard,  in  form  of  a  triangle ;  and  he  ordered 
them  to  be  mounted  and  armed  until  the  intentions  of  Ata- 
baliva were  known.  Having  pitched  his  tents,  Atabaliva 
sent  a  messenger  to  the  Governor  to  say  that,  as  it  was  now 
late,  he  wished  to  sleep  where  he  was,  and  that  he  would 
come  in  the  morning.  The  Governor  sent  back  to  beg 
him  to  come  at  once,  because  he  was  waiting  for  supper, 
and  that  he  should  not  sup  until  Atabaliva  should  come. 
The  messengers  came  back  to  ask  the  Governor  to  send  a 
Christian  to  Atabaliva,  that  he  intended  to  come  at  once, 
and  that  he  would  come  unarmed.  The  Governor  sent  a 
Christian,'''  and  presently  Atabaliva  moved,  leaving  the  armed 
men  behind  him.  He  took  with  him  about  five  or  six 
thousand  Indians  without  arms,  except  that,  under  their 
shirts,  they  had  small  darts  and  slings  with  stones. 

6  The  word  galpon  is  not  Spanish.  Garcilasso  says  thatr  it  belonged 
to  the  language  of  the  Windward  Islands,  and  that  the  Spaniards  adopted 
it.  The  word  means  a  large  hall  or  court.  The  Yncas  had  such  halls 
attached  to  their  palaces,  which  were  so  large  that  festivals  were  held  in 
them,  when  the  weather  was  rainy.  Such  vast  halls  may  still  be  seen 
among  the  ruins  of  Hervay  and  Pachacamac.  In  Cuzco  they  have  been 
converted  into  modern  houses.  The  villages  of  slaves  in  modern  haci- 
endas on  the  Peruvian  coast,  which  are  enclosed  by  high  walls,  are  called 

'  Xcrcs  says  that  he  refused  to  send  the  Christian.     See  p.  50. 


He  came  in  a  litter,  and  before  him  went  tliree  or  four 
hundred  Indians  in  liveries/  cleaning  the  straws  from  the 
road  and  singing.    Then  came  Atabaliva  in  the  midst  of  his 
chiefs  and  principal  men,  the  greatest  among  them  being 
also  borne  on   men's  shoulders.     When    they  entered  the 
open  space,  twelve  or  fifteen  Indians  went  up  to  the  little 
fortress  that  was  there  and  occupied  it,  taking  possession 
with  a  banner  fixed  on  a  lance.     When  Atabaliva  had  ad- 
vanced to  the  centre  of  the  open  space,  he  stopped,  and  a 
Dominican  Friar,  who  was  with  the  Governor,  came  forward 
to  tell  him,  on  the  part  of  the  Governor,  that  he  waited  for 
him  in  his  lodging,  and  that  he  was  sent  to  speak  with  him. 
The  Friar  then  told  Atabaliva  that  he  was  a  Priest,  and  that 
he  was  sent  there  to  teach  the  things  of  the  Faith,  if  they 
should  desire  to  be   Christians.     He  showed  Atabaliva  a 
book  which  he  carried  in  his  hands,  and  told  him  that  that 
book  contained  the  things  of  God.     Atabaliva  asked  for  the 
book,  and  threw  it  on  the  ground,  saying : — "  I  will  not 
leave  this  place  until  you  have  restored  all  that  you  have 
tciken  in  my  land.     I  know  well  who  you  are,  and  what  you 
have  come  for."    Then  he  rose  up  in  his  litter,  and  addressed 
his  men,  and  there  were  murmurs  among  them  and  calls  to 
those  who  were  armed.     The  Friar  went  to  the  Governor 
and  reported  what  was  being  done,  and  that  no  time  was 
to  be  lost.     The  Governor  sent  to  me;  and  I  had  arranged 
with  the   Captain  of  the   artillery  that,  when  a  sign  was 
given,  he  should  discharge  his  pieces,  and  that,  on  hearing 
the  reports,  all  the  troops  should  come  forth  at  once.     This 
was  done,  and  as  the  Indians  were  unarmed,  they  were  de- 
feated without  danger  to  any  Christian.    Those  who  carried 
the  litter,  and  the  chiefs  who  surrounded  Atabaliva,  were 
all  killed,  falling  round  him.     The  Governor  came  out  and 
seized  Atabaliva,  and,  in  protecting  him,  he  received  a  knife- 

^  In  liveries  of  different  colours,  like  a  cliess-board,  Xeres  tells  us. 
See  p.  53. 


cut  from  a  Christian  m  the  hand.  The  troops  continued  the 
pursuit  as  far  as  the  place  where  the  armed  Indians  were 
stationed,  who  made  no  resistance  whatever,  because  it  was 
now  night.  All  were  brought  into  the  town,  where  the 
Governor  was  quartered. 

Next  morning  the  Governor  ordered  us  to  go  to  the  camp 
of  Atabaliva,  where  we  found  forty  thousand  castellanos  and 
four  or  five  thousand  marcos  of  silver.  The  camp  was  as 
full  of  people  as  if  none  were  wanting.  All  the  people  were 
assembled,  and  the  Governor  desired  them  to  go  to  their 
homes,  and  told  them  that  he  had  not  come  to  do  them 
harm,  that  what  he  had  done  was  by  reason  of  the  pride  of 
Atabaliva,  and  that  he  himself  ordered  it.  On  asking  Ata- 
baliva  why  he  had  thrown  away  the  book  and  shown  so 
much  pride,  he  answered  that  his  captain,  who  had  been 
sent  to  speak  with  the  Governor,  had  told  him  that  the 
Christians  were  not  warriors,  that  the  horses  were  unsaddled 
at  night,  and  that  with  two  hundred  Indians  he  could  defeat 
them  all.  He  added  that  this  captain  and  the  chief  of  San 
Miguel  had  deceived  him.  The  Governor  then  inquired 
concerning  his  brother  the  Cuzco,^  and  he  answered  that  he 
would  arrive  next  day,  that  he  was  being  brought  as  a 
prisoner,  and  that  his  captain  remained  with  the  troops  in 
the  town  of  Cuzco.  It  afterwards  turned  out  that  in  all  this 
he  had  spoken  the  truth,  except  that  he  had  sent  orders  for 
his  brother  to  be  killed,  lest  the  Governor  should  restore 
him  to  his  lordship.  The  Governor  said  that  he  had  not 
come  to  make  war  on  the  Indians,  but  that  our  Lord  the 
Emperor,  who  was  Lord  of  the  whole  world,  had  ordered 
him  to  come  that  he  might  see  the  land,  and  let  Atabaliva 
know  the  things  of  our  Faith,  in  case  he  should  wish  to  be- 
come a  Christian.  The  Governor  also  told  him  that  that 
land,  and  all  other  lands,  belonged  to  the  Emperor,  and 
that  he  must  acknowledge  him  as  his  Lord.     He  replied  that 

"  Ynca  Huascar. 


he  was  content,  and,  observing  that  the  Christians  had  col- 
lected some  gold,  Atabaliva  said  to  the  Governor  that  they 
need  not  take  such  care  of  it,  as  if  there  was  so  little  ;  for 
that  he  could  give  them  ten  thousand  plates/  and  that  he 
could  fill  the  room  in  which  he  was  up  to  a  white  line,  which 
was  the  height  of  a  man  and  a  half  from  the  floor.  The 
room  was  seventeen  or  eighteen  feet  wide,  and  thirty-five 
feet  long.     He  said  that  he  could  do  this  in  two  months. 

Two  months  passed  away,  and  the  gold  did  not  arrive,  but 
the  Governor  received  tidings  that  every  day  parties  of  men 
were  advancing  against  him.  In  order  both  to  ascertain 
the  truth  of  these  reports,  and  to  hurry  the  arrival  of  the 
gold,  the  Governor  ordered  me  to  set  out  with  twenty 
horsemen  and  ten  or  twelve  foot  soldiers  for  a  place  called 
Guamachuco,  which  is  twenty  leagues  from  Caxamalca. 
This  was  the  place  where  it  was  reported  that  armed  men 
were  collecting  together.  I  advanced  to  that  town,  and 
found  a  quantity  of  gold  and  silver,  which  I  sent  thence  to 
Caxamalca.  Some  Indians,  who  were  tortured,^  told  us 
that  the  captains  and  armed  men  were  at  a  place  six  leagues 
from  Guamachuco ;  and,  though  I  had  no  instructions  from 
the  Governor  to  advance  beyond  that  point,  I  resolved  to 
push  forward  with  fourteen  horsemen  and  nine  foot  soldiers, 
in  order  that  the  Indians  might  not  take  heart  at  the  notion 
that  we  had  retreated.  The  rest  of  my  party  were  sent  to 
guard  the  gold,  because  their  horses  were  lame.  Next 
morning  I  arrived  at  that  town,  and  did  not  find  any  armed 
men  there,  and  it  turned  out  that  the  Indians  had  told  lies; 
perhaps  to  frighten  us  and  induce  us  to  return. 

At  this  village  I  received  permission  from  the  Governor 
to  go  to  a  mosque  of  which  we  had  intelhgence,  which  was 

^  Tejuelos,  square  pieces  of  metal,  on  which  the  points  of  gates  or 
large  doors  turn.     Quoits  are  also  called  tejuelos. 

2  Here  the  ruffian  is  at  his  torturing  tricks  again ;  and  is  again  only 
told  lies  for  his  pains. 


a  hundred  leagues  away  on  the  sea-coast,  in  a  town  called 
Pachacama.  It  took  us  twenty-two  days  to  reach  it.  The 
road  over  the  mountains  is  a  thing  worth  seeing,  because, 
though  the  ground  is  so  rugged,  such  beautiful  roads  could 
not  in  truth  be  found  throughout  Christendom.  The  greater 
part  of  them  is  paved.  There  is  a  bridge  of  stone  or  wood 
over  every  stream.  We  found  bridges  of  network  over  a 
very  large  and  powerful  river,  which  we  crossed  twice, 
which  was  a  marvellous  thing  to  see.  The  horses  crossed 
over  by  them.  At  each  passage  they  have  two  bridges,  the 
one  by  which  the  common  people  go  over,  and  the  other  for 
the  lords  of  the  land  and  their  captains.  The  approaches 
are  always  kept  closed,  with  Indians  to  guard  them.  These 
Indians  exact  transit  dues  from  all  passengers.  The  chiefs 
and  people  of  the  mountains  are  more  intelligent  than  those 
of  the  coast.  The  country  is  populous.  There  are  mines  in 
many  parts  of  it.  It  is  a  cold  climate,  it  snows,  and  there 
is  much  rain.  There  are  no  swamps.  Fuel  is  scarce.  Ata- 
baliva  has  placed  governors  in  all  the  principal  towns,  and 
his  predecessors  had  also  appointed  governors.  In  all  these 
towns  there  were  houses  of  imprisoned  women,  with  guards 
at  the  doors,  and  these  women  preserve  their  virginity.  If 
any  Indian  has  any  connection  with  them  his  punishment  is 
death.  Of  these  houses,  some  are  for  the  worship  of  the 
Sun,  others  for  that  of  old  Cuzco,^  the  father  of  Atabaliva. 
Their  sacrifices  consist  of  sheep  and  chicha,'^  which  they 
pour  out  on  the  ground.  They  have  another  house  of 
women  in  each  of  the  principal  towns,  also  guarded.  These 
women  are  assembled  by  the  chiefs  of  the  neighbouring 
districts,  and  when  the  lord  of  the  land  passes  by  they  select 
the  best  to  present  to  him,  and  when  they  are  taken  others 
are  chosen  to  fill  up  their  places.  These  women  also  have 
the  duty  of  making  chicha  for  the  soldiers  when  they  pass 

*  The  Ynca  Huayna  Ccapac. 

*  Fermented  liquor  from  maize. 


that  way.  They  took  Indian  girls  out  of  these  houses  and 
presented  them  to  us.  All  the  surrounding  chiefs  come  to 
these  towns  on  the  roads  to  perform  service  when  the  army 
passes.  They  have  stores  of  fuel  and  maize,  and  of  all  other 
necessaries.  They  count  by  certain  knots  on  cords,  and  so 
record  what  each  chief  has  brought.  When  they  had  to 
bring  us  loads  of  fuel,  maize,  chicha,  or  meat,  they  took  off 
knots  or  made  knots  on  some  other  part ;  so  that  those  who 
have  charge  of  the  stores  keep  an  exact  account.  In  all 
these  towns  they  received  us  with  great  festivities,  dancing 
and  rejoicing. 

When  we  arrived  on  the  plains  of  the  sea  coast  we  met 
with  a  people  who  were  less  civilised,  but  the  country  was 
populous.  They  also  have  houses  of  women,  and  all  the 
other  arrangements  as  in  the  towns  of  the  mountains.  They 
never  wished  to  speak  to  us  of  the  mosque,  for  there  was  an 
order  that  all  who  should  speak  to  us  of  it  should  be  put  to 
death.,  But  as  we  had  intelligence  that  it  was  on  the  coast, 
we  followed  the  high  road  until  we  came  to  it.  The  road  is 
very  wide,  with  an  earthen  wall  on  either  side,  and  houses 
for  resting  at  intervals,  which  were  prepared  to  receive  the 
Cuzco  when  he  travelled  that  way.  There  are  very  large 
villages,  the  houses  of  the  Indians  being  built  of  canes ;  and 
those  of  the  chiefs  are  of  earth  with  roofs  of  branches  of 
trees  ;  for  in  that  land  it  never  rains.  From  the  city  of  San 
Miguel  to  this  mosque  the  distance  is  one  hundred  and 
sixty  or  one  hundred  aiid  eighty  leagues,  the  road  passing 
near  the  sea  shore  through  a  very  populous  country.  The 
road,  with  a  wall  on  each  side,  traverses  the  whole  of  this 
country ;  and,  neither  in  that  part  nor  in  the  part  further 
on,  of  which  we  had  notice  for  two  hundred  leagues,  does  it 
ever  rain.  They  live  by  irrigation,  for  the  rainfall  is  so 
.great  in  the  mountains  that  many  rivers  flow  from  them,  so 
that  throughout  the  land  there  is  not  three  leagues  without 
a  river.     The  distance  from  the  sea  to  the  mountains  is  in 


some  parts  ten  leagues,  in  others  twelve.  It  is  not  cold. 
Throughout  the  whole  of  this  coast  land,  and  beyond  it, 
tribute  is  not  paid  to  Cuzco,  but  to  the  mosque.  The  bishop 
of  it  was  in  Caxamalca  with  the  Governor.  He  had  ordered 
another  room  of  gold,  such  as  Atabaliva  had  ordered,  and  the 
Governor  ordered  me  to  go  on  this  business,  and  to  hurry 
those  who  were  collecting  it.  When  I  arrived  at  the  mosque, 
I  asked  for  the  gold,  and  they  denied  it  to  me,  saying  that 
they  had  none.  I  made  some  search,  but  could  not  find  it. 
The  neighbouring  chiefs  came  to  see  me,  and  brought  pre- 
sents, and  in  the  mosque  there  was  found  some  gold  dust, 
which  was  left  behind  when  the  rest  was  concealed.  Alto- 
gether I  collected  85,000  castellanos  and  3000  marcos  of 

This  town  of  the  mosque  is  very  large,  and  contains  grand 
edifices  and  courts.  Outside,  there  is  another  great  space 
surrounded  by  a  wall,  with  a  door  opening  on  the  mosque. 
In  this  space  there  are  the  houses  of  the  women,  who,  they 
say,  are  the  women  of  the  devil.  Here,  also,  are  the  store- 
rooms, where  the  stores  of  gold  are  kept.  There  is  no  one 
in  the  place  where  these  women  are  kept.  Their  sacrifices 
are  the  same  as  those  to  the  Sun,  which  I  have  already 
described.  Before  entering  the  first  court  of  the  mosque, 
a  man  must  fast  for  twenty  days ;  before  ascending  to  the 
court  above,  he  must  fast  for  a  year.  In  this  upper  court 
the  bishop  used  to  be.  When  messengers  of  the  chiefs, 
who  had  fasted  for  a  year,  went  up  to  pray  to  God  that  he 
would  give  them  a  good  harvest,  they  found  the  bishop 
seated,  with  his  head  covered.  There  are  other  Indians 
whom  they  call  pages  of  the  Sun.  When  these  messengers 
of  the  chief  delivered  their  messages  to  the  bishop,  the  pages 
of  the  devil  went  into  a  chamber,  where  they  said  that  he 
speaks  to  them ;  and  that  devil  said  that  he  was  enraged 
with  the  chiefs,  with  the  sacrifices  they  had  to  offer,  and 
with  the  presents  they  wished  to  bring,    I  believe  that  they 


do  not  speak  with  the  devil,  but  that  these  his  servants  de- 
ceive the  chiefs.  For  I  took  pains  to  investigate  the  matter, 
and  an  old  page,  who  was  one  of  the  chief  and  most  con- 
fidential servants  of  ,their  god,  told  a  chief,  who  repeated  it 
to  me,  that  the  devil  said  they  were  not  to  fear  the  horses, 
as  they  could  do  no  harm.  I  caused  the  page  to  be  tortured, 
and  he  was  so  stubborn  in  his  evil  creed,  that  I  could  never 
gather  anything  from  him,  but  that  they  really  held  their 
devil  to  be  a  god.  This  mosque  is  so  feared  by  all  the 
Indians,  that  they  believe  that  if  any  of  those  servants  of 
the  devil  asked  them  for  anything  and  they  refused  it,  they 
would  presently  die.  It  would  seem  that  the  Indians  do 
not  worship  this  devil  from  any  feelings  of  devotion,  but  from 
fear.  For  the  chiefs  told  me  that,  up  to  that  time,  they  had 
served  that  mosque  because  they  feared  it ;  but  that  now 
they  had  no  fear  but  of  us,  and  that,  therefore,  they  wished 
to  serve  us.  The  cave  in  which  the  devil  was  placed  was 
very  dark,  so  that  one  could  not  enter  it  without  a  light, 
and  within  it  was  very  dirty.  I  made  all  the  Caciques, 
who  came  to  see  me,  enter  the  place  that  they  might  lose 
their  fear ;  and,  for  want  of  a  preacher,  I  made  my  sermon, 
explaining  to  them  the  errors  in  which  they  lived. 

In  this  town  I  learnt  that  the  principal  Captain  of  Ata- 
baliva^  was  at  a  distance  of  twenty  leagues  from  us,  in  a 
town  called  Jauja.  I  sent  to  tell  him  to  come  and  see  me, 
and  he  replied  that  I  should  take  the  road  to  Caxamalca, 
and  that  he  would  take  another  road  and  meet  me.  The 
Governor,  on  hearing  that  the  Captain  was  for  peace  and 
that  he  was  ready  to  come  with  me,  wrote  to  me  to  tell  me 
to  return ;  and  he  sent  three  Christians  to  Cuzco,  which  is 
fifty  leagues  beyond  Jauja,  to  take  possession  and  to  see 
the  country.  I  returned  by  the  road  of  Caxamalca,  and  by 
another  road,  where  the  Captain  of  Atabaliva  was  to  join 
me.     But  he  had  not  started ;    and  I  learnt  from  certain 

*  This  was  Chalcucliima. 

XAUXA.  125 

chiefs  that  he  had  not  movea^  and  that  he  had  taken  me  in. 
So  I  went  back  to  the  place  where  he  was,  and  the  road 
was  very  rugged,  and  so  obstructed  with  snow,  that  it  cost 
us  much  labour  to  get  there.  Having  reached  the  royal 
road,  and  come  to  a  place  called  Bombon,  I  met  a  Captain 
of  Atabaliva  with  five  thousand  armed  Indians  whom  Ata- 
baliva  had  sent  on  pretence  of  conquering  a  rebel  chief; 
but,  as  it  afterwards  appeared,  they  were  assembled  to  kill 
the  Christians.  Here  we  found  500,000  ^esos  of  gold  that 
they  were  taking  to  Caxamalca.  This  Captain  told  me  that 
the  Captain-General  remained  in  Jauja,  that  he  knew  of 
our  approach,  and  was  much  afraid.  I  sent  a  messenger  to 
him,  to  tell  him  to  remain  where  he  was,  and  to  fear  nothing. 
I  also  found  a  negro  here,  who  had  gone  with  the  Christiana 
to  Cuzco,  and  he  told  me  that  these  fears  were  feigned ;  for 
that  the  Captain-General^  had  many  well-armed  men  with 
him,  that  he  counted  them  by  his  knots  in  presence  of  the 
Christians,  and  that  they  numbered  thirty-five  thousand  In- 
dians. So  we  went  to  Jauja,  and,  when  we  were  half  a 
league  from  the  town,  and  found  that  the  Captain  did  not 
come  out  to  receive  us,  a  chief  of  Atabaliva,  whom  I  had 
with  me  and  whom  I  had  treated  well,  advised  me  to  advance 
in  order  of  battle,  because  he  believed  that  the  Captain  in- 
tended to  fight.  We  went  up  a  small  hill  overlooking  Jauja, 
and  saw  a  large  black  mass  in  the  'plaza,  which  appeared  to 
be  something  that  had  been  burnt.  I  asked  what  it  was, 
and  they  told  me  that  it  was  a  crowd  of  Indians.  The 
plaza  is  large,  and  has  a  length  of  a  quarter  of  a  league.  As 
no  one  came  to  receive  us  on  reaching  the  town,  our  people 
advanced  in  the  expectation  of  having  to  fight  the  Indians. 
But,  at  the  entrance  of  the  square,  some  principal  men  came 
out  to  meet  us  with  offers  of  peace,  and  told  us  that  the 
Captain  was  not  there,  as  he  had  gone  to  reduce  certain 
chiefs  to  submission.     It  would  seem  that  he  had  gone  out 

®  Chalcuchima. 


of  fear  with  some  of  his  troops,  and  had  crossed  a  riveT 
near  the  town  by  a  bridge  of  network.  I  sent  to  tell  him 
to  come  to  me  peaceably,  or  else  the  Christians  would  de- 
stroy him.  Next  morning  the  people  came  who  were  in 
the  square.  They  were  Indian  servants,  and  it  is  true  that 
they  numbered  over  a  hundred  thousand  souls.  We  remained 
here  five  days,  and  during  all  that  time  they  did  nothing 
but  dance  and  sing,  and  hold  great  drinking  feasts.  The 
Captain  did  not  wish  to  come  with  me,  but  when  he  saw 
that  I  was  determined  to  make  him,  he  came  of  his  own 
accord.  I  left  the  chief  who  came  with  me  as  Captain  there. 
This  town  of  Jauja  is  very  fine  and  picturesque,  with  very 
good  level  approaches,  and  it  has  an  excellent  river  bank. 
In  all  my  travels  I  did  not  see  a  better  site  for  a  Christian 
settlement,  and  I  believe  that  the  Governor  intends  to  form 
one  there,  though  some  think  that  it  would  be  more  con- 
venient to  select  a  position  near  the  sea,  and  are,  therefore, 
of  an  opposite  opinion.  All  the  country,  from  Jauja  to 
Caxamalca,  by  the  road  we  returned,  is  like  that  of  which 
I  have  already  given  a  description. 

After  returning  to  Caxamalca,  and  reporting  my  pro- 
ceedings to  the  Governor,  he  ordered  me  to  go  to  Spain, 
and  to  give  an  account  to  his  Majesty  of  this  and  other 
things  which  appertain  to  his  service.  I  took,  from  the 
heap  of  gold,  100,000  castellanos  for  his  Majesty,  being  the 
amount  of  his  fifth.  The  day  after  I  left  Caxamalca,  the 
Christians,  who  had  gone  to  Cuzco,  returned,  and  brought 
1,500,000  of  gold.  After  I  arrived  at  Panama,  another 
ship  came  in,  with  some  knights.  They  say  that  a  distri- 
bution of  the  gold  was  made ;  and  that  the  share  of  his 
Majesty,  besides  the  100,000  pesos  and  the  5000  marcos  of 
silver  that  I  bring,  was  another  165,000  castellanos,  and 
7000  or  8000  marcos  of  silver ;  while  to  all  those  of  us  who 
had  gone,  a  further  share  of  gold  was  sent. 

After  my  departure,  according   to   what  the  Governor 


writes  to  me,  it  became  known  tliat  Atabaliva  had  assem- 
bled troops  to  make  war  on  the  Christians,  and  justice  was 
done  upon  him.  The  Governor  made  his  brother,  who  was 
his  enemy,  lord  in  his  place.  Molina  comes  to  this  city, 
and  from  him  your  worships  may  learn  anything  else  that 
you  may  desire  to  know.  The  shares  of  the  troops  were,  to 
the  horsemen  9000  castellanos,  to  the  Governor  6000,  to  me 
3000.  The  Governor  has  derived  no  other  profit  from  that 
land,  nor  has  there  been  deceit  or  fraud  in  the  account.  I 
say  this  to  your  worships,  because  if  any  other  statement  is 
made,  this  is  the  truth.  May  our  Lord  long  guard  and 
prosper  the  magnificent  persons  of  your  worships. 

Done  in  this  city,  November  1533.     At  the  service  of 
your  worships. 

Hernando  Pizarro. 







PEDRO  SANCHO  (Notary). 






In  the  town  of  Caxamalca,  of  these  kingdoms  of  New  Cas- 
tille,  on  the  1  7th  day  of  the  month  of  June,  in  the  year  of 
the  birth  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  1533,  the  very  magnifi- 
cent Lord  and  Commander  Francisco  Pizarro,  Adelantado, 
Lieutenant,  Captain-General,  and  Governor  for  his  Majesty 
in  the  said  kingdoms,  in  the  presence  of  me,  Pedro  Sancho, 
Lieutenant  of  the  General  Secretary,  on  the  part  of  the 
Lord  Pedro  Samano,  declares  :  that,  on  the  occasion  of  the 
imprisonment  and  defeat  of  the  chief  Atahuallpa  and  of  his 
troops  in  this  town,  some  gold  was  collected,  and  that  after- 
wards the  said  chief  promised  to  the  Christian  Spaniards 
that  they  should  find  a  certain  quantity  of  gold  in  his  prison, 
which  quantity  should,  he  declared,  be  a  room  full,  namely, 
10,000  tejuelos,  and  much  silver  which  he  possessed  and 
promised ;  and  which  his  captains,  in  his  name,  had  taken 
in  the  war  and  capture  of  Cuzco,  and  in  the  conquest  of 
those  lands,  by  many  ways  which  are  more  fully  declared  in 
the  act  which  was  attested  before  a  notary  ;  and  which  the 
said  chief  has  given,  brought,  and  ordered  to  be  given 
and  brought :  of  which  a  division  and  distribution  has  been 
made,  as  well  of  the  gold  as  the  silver,  and  of  the  pearls  and 
emeralds  which  have  been  given,  and  of  their  value,  among 
the  persons  who  were  present  at  the  capture  of  the  said 
chief,  and  who  acquired  and  took  the  said  gold  and  silver. 


and  to  whom  the  said  chief  promised,  gave,  and  delivered 
it ;  so  that  each  person  might  have,  hold,  and  possess  that 
which  belonged  to  him  ;  in  order  that  his  Lordship  might 
without  delay  settle  the  matter,  and  leave  this  town  to  go 
and  people  and  reduce  the  land  beyond,  and  for  many  other 
reasons  which  are  not  herein  stated ;  for  which  object  the  said 
Lord  Governor  declared  that  his  Majesty,  in  his  provisions 
and  royal  orders,  in  which  he  granted  the  government  of 
these  kingdoms,  commanded  that  all  the  fruits  and  other 
things  that  in  these  lands  might  be  found  and  acquired, 
should  be  given  and  distributed  among  the  conquerors  who 
should  acquire  them,  in  the  way  that  seemed  best  to  him, 
and  according  as  each  person  should  deserve  by  reason  of 
his  rank  and  services;  and  considering  the  above  said  com- 
mands, and  other  things  that  ought  to  be  considered  in 
making  the  distribution,  and  that  each  man  might  have  his 
share  of  what  the  chief  had  given,  as  his  Majesty  had  com- 
manded, he  has  determined  to  name  and  select  before  me, 
the  said  notary,  the  quantity  of  silver  which  each  person 
shall  have  and  take,  according  as,  in  his  conscience,  God 
our  Lord  shall  give  him  understanding ;  and,  for  the  better 
performance,  he  seeks  the  aid  of  God  our  Lord,  and  invokes 
his  divine  assistance. 

Then  the  said  Lord  Governor,  considering  what  is  said 
and  declared  in  the  deed,  having  God  before  his  eyes, 
assigned  to  each  person  the  marcos  of  silver  that  he  had 
earned  and  deserved,  out  of  what  the  said  chief  had  given, 
and  in  this  manner  it  was  arranged. 

On  the  18th  of  June  of  the  same  year  of  1533,  the  said 
Governor  approved  another  deed,  by  which  the  gold  was  to 
be  melted  and  distributed;  and  the  gold  was  melted  and  dis- 
tributed in  this  manner.  I  distinguish  the  gold  and  silver 
that  each  one  received  in  the  following  columns  ;  that  the 
list  of  persons  may  only  be  given  once. 


To  the  Church 

To  the  Lord  Governor,  for   his  persons,  his 

interpreters,  and  horse 
To  Hernando  Pizarro 
To  Hernando  de  Soto      * 
To  Father  Juan  de  Sosa,  Chaplain  to  the  army 
To  Juan  Pizarro 
To  Pedeo  de  Candia^ 
To  Gonzalo  Pizarro 
To  Juan  Cortes 
To  Sebastian  de  Benalcazar^ 
To  Cristobal  Mena,  or  Medina 
To  Luis  Hernandez  Bueno 
To  Juan  de  Salazar 
To  Miguel  Estete^ 
To  Francisco  de  Jerez 
More  to  the  said  Jerez  and  Pedro  Sancho  for 

writing     .... 
To  Gonzalo  de  Pineda*    . 
ToAlonzo  Briceuo^ 
>-To  Alonzo  de  Medina 
To  Juan  Pizarro  de  Orellana^ 
To  Luis  Marca 

^  One  of  the  thirteen.     See  Note  at  p.  8. 

2  For  some  account  qf  the  career  of  Benalcazar  see  my  translations  of 
Pascual  de  Andagoya;  and  of  Cieza  de  Leon.     Note  at  p.  110. 

s  See  Note  at  p.  74. 

*  Killed  by  Indians  who  captured  him,  in  the  war  between  Gonzalo 
Pizarro  and  the  Viceroy  Blasco  Nunez.  O.  de  la  Vega,  ii,  lib.  ir, 
p.  24. 

5  One  of  the  thirteen.     See  Note  at  p.  8. 

«  Went  with  Hernando  Pizarro  to  Pachacamac.  la  Vega,  ii, 
lib.  i,  cap.  29. 






.  2220 








.  7770 




.  9909 


.  9909 


.  9430 


.  9909 


.  8380 


.  9435 


.  9435 


.  8980 


.  8880 


.  2220 


.  9909 


.  8380 


.  8480 


.  8980 


.  8880 



To  Geronimo  de  Aliaga'^    . 

.     339.. 


To  Gonzalo  Perez 

.     362.. 


To  Pedro  de  Barrientos     . 

.     362. 


To  Rodrigo  Nunez^            , 

.     362.. 


To  Pedro  Anades 

.     362. 


To  Francisco  Maraver 

.     362. 


To  Diego  Maldonado^ 

.     362. 


To  Ramiro  or  Francisco  de  Chaves^ 

.     362. 


To  Diego  Ojuelos 

.     362 


To  Gines  de  Carranca 

.     362. 


To  Juan  de  Quincoces 

.     362. 


To  Alonzo  de  Morales 

.     362. 


To  Lope  Velez  . 

.     362. 


To  Juan  de  Barbaian^ 

.     362. 


To  Pedro  de  Aguirre 

.     362. 


To  Pedro  de  Leon 

.     362. 


To  Diego  Mejia 

.     362. 


To  Martin  Alonzo 

.     362. 


To  Juan  de  Rosas 

.     362. 


To  Pedro  Catano 

.     362. 


'  He  was  appointed  Governor  of  Lima  by  Vaca  de  Castro,  and  dis- 
tinguished himself  in  the  battle  of  Chupas  against  the  younger  Almagro. 
O.  de  la  Veffa,  ii,  lib.  ii,  caps.  12  and  18. 

^  He  was  put  to  death  on  suspicion,  by  Gonzalo  Pizarro,  at  Lima. 
G.  de  la  Vega,  ii,  lib.  iv,  cap.  20. 

*  A  very  conspicuous  personage  in  the  future  civil  wars.  He  took  a 
part  in  them  all,  down  to  the  insurrection  of  Giron.  He  was  surnamed 
"the  rich",  and  became  a  citizen  of  Cuzco,  where  he  died  in  1562. 
Frequent  mention  of  him  will  be  found  in  Garcilasso. 

>  See  Note  at  p.  104. 

«  It  should  be  Juan  de  Barbaran.  He  was  a  native  of  Truxillo,  and 
was  a  servant  of  the  Conqueror.  When  Pizarro  was  murdered  no  man 
dared  to  bury  the  body,  for  fear  of  the  assassins,  until  the  faithful  Bar- 
baran and  his  wife  performed  the  office  in  the  best  way  they  could, 
dressing  the  body  in  the  mantle  of  Santiago.  Barbaran  afterwards 
fought  bravely  against  the  younger  Almagro  at  the  battle  of  Chupas. 
G.  de  la  Vega^  ii,  lib.  iii,  cap.  7. 



To  Pedro  Ortiz^ 

.     362. 


To  Juan  Morquejo 

.     362. 


To  Hernando  de  Toro    '    . 

.     316. 


To  Diego  de  Aguero* 

.     362. 


To  Alonzo  Perez 

.     362. 


To  Hernando  Beltran 

.     362. 


To  Pedro  de  Barrera 

.     362. 


To  Francisco  de  Baena 

.     362. 


To  Francisco  Lopez 

.     371. 


To  Sebastian  de  Torres     . 

.     362. 


To  Juan  Ruiz     . 

.    339. 



.     362. 


To  Gonzalo  del  Castillo     . 

.     362. 


To  Nicolas  de  Azpitia 

.     339. 


To  Diego  de  Molina 

.     316. 


To  Alonzo  Peto 

.     316. 


To  Miguel  Ruiz 

.     362.. 


To  Juan  de  Salinas^  (blacJcsmith) 

.     362.. 


To  Juan  Loz 

.     248.. 


To  Cristobal  Gallego  {no  gold) 

.     316. 

.  — 

To  Rodrigo  de  Cantillana  {no  gold) 

.     248. 

.  — 

To  Gabriel  Telor  {no  gold) 

.     294.. 


To  Hernan  Sanchez^ 

.     262.. 


To  Pedro  Sa  Paramo 

.     271.. 


»  Pedro  Ortiz  de  Orue  became  a  citizen  of  Cuzco,  and  married  a  sister 
of  the  Ynca  Sayri  Tupac.  See  Note  at  p.  253  of  vol.  ii  of  my  transla- 
tion of  Oarcilasso  de  la  Vega,  Part  I. 

*  When  the  Indians  rose  against  the  Spaniards,  under  Ynca  Manco, 
Diego  de  Aguero  received  timely  notice  from  the  Indian  servants  on  hia 
estate,  and  escaped  into  Lima,  After  the  murder  of  Pizarro,  he  fled 
from  the  Almagro  faction,  and  joined  Vaca  de  Castro  at  Truxillo.  He 
also  persuaded  the  people  of  Lima  to  receive  the  unpopular  Viceroy 
Blasco  Nunez.     He  seems  to  have  been  a  loyal,  peaceable  man. 

*  One  of  the  twelve  who  protested  against  the  murder  of  Atahuallpa. 
See  Note  at  p.  103. 

*  O.  de  la  Vega,  ii,  lib.  viii,  cap.  13. 

'  Hernan  Sanchez  de  Vargas  was  abandoned  on  the  desert  shore  of 



To  Juan  de  Porras 
To  Gregorio  Sotelo 
To  Pedro  Sancho 
To  Garcia  de  Paredes 
To  Juan  de  Baldivieso 
To  Gonzalo  Maldonado 
To  Pedro  Navarro 
To  Juan  Ronquillo 
To  Antonio  de  Bergara 
To  Alonzo'  de  la  Carrera 
To  Alonzo  Komero 
To  Melchor  Berdugo^ 
To  Martin  Bueno^ 
To  Juan  Perez  Tudela 
To  Inigo  Taburco 

181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181. ..4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
135... 3330 
135... 4440 
181... 4440 
181. ..4440 

the  Napo,  by  Orellana,  when  he  descended  the  Amazon.  See  my  Valley 
of  the  Amazons.,  p.  12. 

^  Melchior  Verdugo  was  a  native  of  Avila.  He  received  a  large  grant 
in  the  valley  of  Caxamarca.  He  distinguished  himself  in  the  battle  of 
Chupas  against  Almagro  the  younger.  He  was  a  friend  of  the  Viceroy 
Blasco  Nunez  de  Vela;  and  when  Gonzalo  Pizarro  rebelled  and  declared 
himself  Governor  of  Peru,  his  Lieutenant  Carbajal  seized  Verdugo  at 
Lima,  and  put  him  in  prison.  He  was  afterwards  allowed  to  go  to  his 
own  house  in  Truxillo.  There  he  played  the  party  of  Gonzalo  Pizarro 
an  extraordinary  trick.  A  ship  was  at  anchor  in  the  port,  and  he  invited 
the  captain  and  pilot  to  his  house,  and  locked  them  up.  He  then  looked 
out  of  his  window  and  saw  the  Alcalde  and  others.  He  called  to  them, 
begging  them  to  come  up  and  witness  a  deed,  as  he  had  a  pain  in  his 
feet  and  could  not  go  down.  Up  they  came,  suspecting  nothing,  and 
were  locked  up  also.  He  did  the  same  to  about  twenty  of  the  leading 
men  of  Gonzalo's  party,  and  then  seized  the  ship,  sailing  in  her  to  Nica- 
ragua, with  a  few  followers ;  and  a  quantity  of  gold  and  silver,  which 
he  had  extorted  from  his  captives.  He  was  chased  by  some  vessels  of 
Gonzalo,  and  his  ship  was  seized,  after  he  had  landed.  After  staying 
some  time  in  Nicaragua  and  at  Carthagena,  he  went  to  Spain  and  re- 
ceived the  habit  of  Santiago.     He  returned  to  Peru  in  1563. 

'  One  of  the  three  soldiers  who  were  sent  to  Cuzco  by  Pizarro.  See 
p.  72.     (Note.) 



To  Nuno  Gonzalo  (no  gold) 

To  Juan  de  Herrera 

To  Francisco  Davalos 

To  Hernando  de  Aldana   . 

To  Martin  de  Marquina     . 

To  Antonio  de  Herrera 

To  Sandoval  (Chistian  name  not  given) 

To  Miguel  Estete^  de  Santiago 

To  Juan  Bonallo 

To  Pedro  Moguer^ 

To  Francisco  Perez 

To  Melchor  Palomino 

To  Pedro  de  Alconchel 

To  Juan  de  Segovia 

To  Crisostomo  de  Ontiveros 

To  Heman  Munoz 

To  Alonso  de  Mesa^ 

To  Juan  Perez  de  Oma 

To  Diego  de  Teuxillo* 

111...  — 
158. ..3385 
181... 4440 
181... 4440 
135... 3330 
136. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
181. ..44  40 
181... 4440 
158... 3880 
158.. .3330 
135... 4440 
181... 3330 
135. ..3330 
135.. .3330 
135.. .3330 
135... 3885 
158.. .3330 

1  See  Note  at  p.  74. 

^  One  of  the  three  soldiers  who  were  sent  to  Cuzco  by  Pizarro.  See 
p.  72.     (Note.) 

3  Alonzo  de  Mesa  became  a  citizen  of  Cuzco,  and  had  a  house  next 
door  to  that  of  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega  (ii,  p.  25'4),  He  had  a  very  pretty 
girl  living  in  his  house,  and  when  young  Altamtrano  was  riding  a  race, 
he  kept  looking  back  at  her  in  Mesa's  balcony,  until  he  fell  ofF.  In  the 
rebellion  of  Giron  in  1550,  M&sa  fled  from  Cuzco,  and  the  licentiate 
Alvarado,  Giron's  lieutenant,  discovered  and  dug  up  sixty  bars  of  silver, 
worth  three  hundred  ducats  each,  in  the  fugitive's  back  garden.  Young 
Garcilasso  saw  the  robbers  at  work,  from  a  window  of  his  father's  house. 
Mesa's  son,  also  named  Alonzo,  and  probably  a  half-caste,  was  employed 
by  the  Ynca  family  as  their  advocate  in  Spain,  in  1603. 

♦  According  to  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega,  this  Diego  de  Tru^iUo  was  one 
of  the  men  who  stood  by  Pizarro  on  the  island  of  Gallo.  See  Note  at  p.  8. 
He  had  large  estates  near  Duzco,  and  was  imprisoned  there  by  Almagro, 
when  he  came  back  from  Chile  and  seized  the  Pizarros  and  their  ad- 
herents. He  afterwards  distinguished  himself  in  the  battle  of  Chupas 
against  the  younger  Almagro.     In  the  rebellion  of  Giron  he  remained 



To  Palomino  {cooper) 

To  Alonzo  Jimenez 

To  Pedro  de  Torres 

To  Alonzo  de  Toro^ 

To  Diego  Lopez^ 

To  Francisco  Gallegosa 

To  Bonilla 

To  Francisco  de  Almendras' 

To  Escalante 

181... 4440 
181... 4440 
135... 3330 
135... 3330 
135... 3330 
135. ..3330 
181... 4440 
181... 4440 
181... 3330 

loyal,  and  joined  the  Marshal  Alvarado.  The  historian  GarcUasso  knew 
Diego  de  Truxillo  at  Cuzco,  and  he  was  still  living  there  in  1560. 

•  When  the  Ynca  Manco  besieged  Cuzco,  Gonzalo  Pizarro  sallied  out 
as  far  as  the  lake  of  Chinchero,  two  leagues  to  the  north,  where  he  was 
attacked  by  a  large  army  of  Indians.  He  would  have  been  overpowered, 
had  not  his  brother  Hernando  Pizarro  and  Alonzo  de  Toro  come  out  to 
the  rescue.  When  (Jonzalo  Pizarro  rebelled  against  the  Viceroy  Blasco 
Nunez,  he  appointed  Alonzo  de  Toro  to  be  his  Master  of  the  Camp  at 
Cuzco,  but  he  fell  Ul  on  the  road  to  Lima,  and  Carbajal  took  his  place. 
Toro  returned  to  Cuzco,  where  he  heard  that  Diego  Centeno  had  risen 
against  Gonzalo  Pizarro.  He  then  collected  some  troops,  and  pursued 
Centeno  as  far  as  La  Plata  (Chuquisaca)  in  the  extreme  south  of  Peru, 
returning  to  Cuzco.  There  appears  to  have  been  much  jealousy  between 
Toro  and  Carbajal.  While  Alonzo  de  Toro  was  Governor  of  Cuzco  for 
Gonzalo  Pizarro,  he  married  a  daughter  of  one  Diego  Gonzalez  de 
Vargas.  They  all  lived  together.  One  day  the  father-in-law  came 
home,  and  found  his  daughter  and  her  husband  quarrelling.  Alonzo 
was  proud  and  quick-tempered.  Diego  Gonzalez  was  an  old  man,  more 
than  sixty-five.  Alonzo  rushed  at  his  father-in-law,  calling  him  names. 
In  self-defence  the  old  man  drew  a  dagger  ;  Alonzo  rushed  upon  it,  and 
received  a  mortal  wound. 

«  Probably  Diego  Lopez  de  Zuniga,  who  served  under  Centeno,  at 
the  battle  of  Huarina;  and  was  afterwards  named  a  Captain  of  Infantry 
by  the  Royal  Audience,  to  serve  against  Giron. 

'  Francisco  de  Almendras  settled  in  Charcas  and  became  very  rich. 
He  was  very  kind  to  Diego  Centeno,  who  came  out  to  Peru  very  young, 
and  treated  him  as  his  own  son.  Indeed,  they  were  called  father  and 
son.  Almendras  became  Governor  of  La  Plata  (Chuquisaca)  for  Gon- 
zalo Pizarro;  where  Centeno  ungratefully  put  him  to  death,  as  a  com- 
mencement of  his  insurrection  on  the  side  of  loyalty,  and  against  Gon- 
zalo. But  Zarate  gives  Almendras  a  very  bad  character.  (Hist,  del 
Peru,  lib.  v,  cap.  21.) 



To  Andres  Jimenez 

To  Juan  Jimenez 

To  Garcia  Martin 

To  Alonzo  Ruiz 

To  Lucas  Martinez 

To  Gomez  Gonzalez 

To  Alonzo  de  Albuquerque 

To  Francisco  de  Vargas    . 

To  Diego  Gavilan^ 

To  Contreras  {dead) 

To  Rodrigo  de  Herrera  (musketeer) 

To  Martin  de  Florencia^    . 

To  Anton  de  Oviedo 

To  Jorge  Griego 

To  Pedro  de  San  Millan^ 

181. ..3330 
181. ..3330 
135... 3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135... 3330 
94.. .2220 
181. ..4440 
181... 3884 
133. ..2770 
135.. .3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
181... 4440 
135.. .3330 

^  Diego  Gavilan  was  a  man  of  good  family,  but  he  was  unlucky.  He 
settled  at  Cuzco,  and  in  1550  he  was  still  poor ;  so  Giron  persuaded  him 
to  join  in  his  rebellion,  and  to  become  a  Captain  of  Horse  in  the  insurgent 
army.  When  Giron  fled  from  Pucara,  Gavilan  went  over  to  the  royal 
army,  and  obtained  his  pardon. 

^  He  did  not  wish  to  join  the  rebellion  of  Gonzalo  Pizarro,  and  was 
therefore  hanged  at  Lima  by  cruel  old  Carbajal,  together  with  Pedro  del 

1  Pedro  de  San  Millan  became  a  partizan  of  Almagro,  and  he  was  one 
of  the  thirteen  assassins  who,  led  by  Juan  de  Rada,  ran  across  the 
square  of  Lima  to  murder  Pizarro,  on  Sunday,  the  26th  of  June,  1541. 
They  ran  with  their  drawn  swords,  shouting,  "Death  to  the  tyrant!" 
Rushing  up  the  stairs  of  Pizarro's  house,  they  were  met  by  Francisco  de 
Chaves,  who  tried  to  stop  them.  He  received  a  sword-thrust,  and  a 
cut  which  nearly  severed  his  head,  and  the  body  was  hurled  down  the 
steps.  Dr.  Velasquez  and  the  servants,  hearing  the  noise,  escaped  out 
of  the  windows  into  a  garden.  Pizarro  was  defended  by  his  half-brother, 
Francisco  Martin  de  Alcantara,  and  by  two  young  pages,  Juan  de  Var- 
gas, a  son  of  Gomez  de  Tordoya,  and  Alonzo  Escandon.  They  had  no 
time  to  put  on  armour ;  but  Pizarro  and  his  brother  defended  the  door- 
way with  great  bravery,  for  a  long  time.  At  last  Alcantara  was  slain, 
and  one  of  the  pages  took  his  place.  Then  Juan  de  Rada  seized  one  of 
the  other  assassins,  named  Narvaez,  and  hurled  him  against  Pizarro,  who 
received  him  on  his  dagger,  and  killed  him.     But,  in  the  scuflle,  the 



To  Pedro  Catalan 

To  Pedro  Roman 

To  Francisco  de  la  Torre 

To  Francisco  Gorducho 

To  Juan  Perez  de  Gomora 

To  Diego  de  Narvaez 

To  Gabriel  de  Olivarez 

To  Juan  Garcia  de  Santa  Olalla 

To  Pedro  de  Mendoza^ 

To  Juan  Garcia  (musketeer) 

To  Juan  Perez 

To  Francisco  Martin^ 

To  Bartolorad  Sanchez  (sailor) 

To  Martin  Pizarro 

To  Hernando  de  Montalvo 

To  Pedro  Pinelo 

To  Lazaro  Sanchez 

To  Miguel  Comejo* 

03... 3330 
93. ..2220 
131. ..2775 
135. ..3330 
181... 4440 
113.. .2775 
181. ..4440 
135. ..3330 
185. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135... 3330 
135... 3330 
181. ..3330 
135... 3330 
94... 3330 
135. ..3330 

others  rushed  into  the  room.  The  two  young  pages  fell  fighting  bravely, 
after  having  severely  wounded  four  of  the  assassins.  Pizarro  was  thus 
left  alone.  The  murderers  attacked  him  on  all  sides,  and  at  last  he  was 
stabbed  in  the  throat.  He  fell  to  the  ground,  made  the  sign  of  the  Cross 
on  the  floor  with  his  right  hand,  kissed  it,  and  expired.  Four  of  the 
assassins  were  killed,  and  four  wounded.  Of  the  others,  Cristoval  de 
Sosa's  name  occurs  in  this  list,  further  on  ;  Martin  de  Bilbao  was  hanged 
and  quartered  after  the  battle  of  Chupas  ;  Juan  de  Rada  died  at  Xauxa 
before  the  battle;  Diego  Mendez  (a  brother  of  Orgoiiez)  fled  to  the  court 
of  the  Ynca  Manco  in  the  mountains  of  Vilcapampa,  where  he  was 
killed,  with  some  other  Spaniards,  because  one  of  them  murdered  the 
Ynca;  Martin  Carrillo  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Chupas;  Gomez  Perez 
was  the  actual  murderer  of  the  Ynca  Manco,  and  was  killed  with  Mendez. 
The  other  two  were  obscure  men,  and  their  fate  is  unknown. 

*  One  of  the  twelve  who  protested  against  the  murder  of  Atahuallpa. 
See  Note  at  p.  103. 

3  Francisco  Martin  de  Alcantara,  the  uterine  brother  of  Francisco 
Pizarro.  He  was  killed  by  the  assassins  of  Pizarro,  while  striving  to  de- 
fend him. 

*  Miguel  Cornejo  settled  at  Arequipa.  When  old  Francisco  de  Car- 
bajal  (afterwards  the  famous  Lieutenant  of  Gouzalo  Pizarro)  first  came 



To  Francisco  Gonzalez 

To  Francisco  Martinez 

To  ^arate^  {no  Christian  name) 

To  Hernando  de  Loja 

To  Juan  de  Niza 

To  Francisco  de  Solar 

To  Hernando  de  Jemendo 

To  Juan  Sanchez 

To  Sancho  de  Villegas 

To  Pedro  de  Yelva  {no  gold) 

'To  Juan  Chico   . 

To  Rodas  {tailor) 

To  Pedro  Salinas  de  la  Hoz 

To  Anton  Estevan  Garcia 

To  Juan  Delgado  Menzon 

To  Pedro  de  Valencia 

To  Alonzo  Sanchez  Talavera 

To  Miguel  Sanchez 

To  Juan  Garcia  {common  crier) 











to  Peru,  he  was  very  poor.  He  arrived  at  Arcquipa,  with  his  wife  Dona 
Catalina  Leyton  and  two  servants,  on  his  way  to  Charcas ;  but  he  was 
friendless,  and  they  remained  for  three  hours  in  a  comer  of  the  square, 
houseless  and  hungry.  Miguel  Cornejo  saw  them  there  when  he  went 
to  chiu-ch,  and  again  when  he  came  out ;  so  he  invited  them  into  his 
house.  Long  afterwards,  after  Gonzalo  had  won  the  battle  of  Huarina, 
Carbajal  marched  to  Arequipa.  The  citizens  fled,  but  were  overtaken 
and  brought  back  by  the  followers  of  Carbajal,  and  among  them  was 
Miguel  Cornejo.  Old  Carbajal  sent  for  his  former  host,  and  told  him 
that,  for  his  sake,  he  would  do  no  injury  to  the  citizens  or  the  town  of 
Arequipa.  When  Giron  rose  in  rebellion,  Miguel  Cornejo,  with  other 
citizens  of  Arequipa,  joined  the  royal  army  under  Pedro  de  Meneses. 
They  were  surprised  by  Giron  at  Villacuri,  in  the  desert  between  Yea 
and  Pisco,  and  retreated,  making  a  running  fight  for  three  leagues. 
Cornejo  wore  a  Burgundian  helmet  with  a  closed  visor  ;  and  what  with 
the  heat  and  dust,  he  was  suffocated,  and  so  died,  to  the  great  sorrow  of 
all  who  knew  him  ;  for  he  was  a  virtuous  and  generous  knight. 

'  This  was  Francisco  de  Zarate,  one  of  the  three  soldiers  who  were 
sent  to  Cuzco  by  Pizarro.     See  Note  on  p.  72. 



To  Lozano 

To  Garcia  Lopez 

To  Juan  Munoz 

To  Juan  de  Berlanga 

To  Esteban  Garcia 

To  Juan  de  Salvatierra 

To  Pedro  Calderon  {no  gold) 

To  Gaspar  de  Marquina  (no  silver) 

To  Diego  Escudero  {no  silver) 

To  Cristobal  de  Sosa^ 

84... 2220 
135... 3330 
135. ..3330 
180... 4440 

94... 4440 
135... 3330 
135...  — 

—  ...3330 

—  ...4440 
135... 3330 

The  Governor  also  said  that  20,000  pesos  should  be  as- 
signed to  the  men  who  came  with  the  Captain  Diego  de 
Almagro,  to  aid  them  in  paying  their  debts  and  freight, 
and  to  furnish  them  with  some  necessaries  that  they  re- 

He  also  said  that  15,000  ^jesos  of  gold  should  be  given  to 
the  thirty  persons  who  remained  in  the  city  of  San  Miguel 
de  Piura  sick,  and  to  others  who  were  not  present  at  the 
capture  of  the  chief  Atahuallpa  nor  at  the  taking  of  the  gold; 
because  some  were  poor  and  others  had  much  need ;  and 
his  Lordship  ordered  this  sum  to  be  distributed  among 
those  persons. 

He  also  said  that  for  the  8000  pesos  which  the  company 
gave  to  Hernando  Pizarro  to  enable  him  to  explore  the 
country,  and  for  other  things  such  as  the  work  of  the  barber 
and  surgeon,  and  for  things  that  had  been  given  the  chiefs, 
8000  pesos  should  be  taken  from  the  mass. 

All  which  the  Lord  Governor  declared  to  be  good  and  to 
be  well  arranged,  and  he  moreover  declared  that  the  sum 
which  each  man  received  might  be  taken  by  him  in  the 
name  of  God  and  his  conscience,  having  respect  to  what  his 

•  One  of  the  assassins  of  Francisco  Pizarro.     See  Note  at  p.  139. 


Majesty  had  commanded ;  and  he  ordered  that  it  should  be 
given  and  distributed  by  weight,  and  before  me,  the  notary, 
to  each  man  as  had  been  declared,  signed  by  order  of  his 

Pedro  Sancho. 

THE    END. 




\J  t  \'^jL 


K  t  S  ?[ 




>o  > 

0^   X 



no.  47